Interdepartmental Programs

Nine interdepartmental programs are available based on existing courses in the Science Faculty to meet the needs of students proceeding into an interdisciplinary area. These programs are not truly interdisciplinary but are extracted from the specialized offerings of two Departments in each case.

These programs are administered jointly by the two departments concerned, and students should refer to specified program advisors for counseling.

Students are advised to consult their academic advisors to carefully plan their selection of first and second year courses to ensure that the relevant prerequisites are completed prior to selection of courses at the third and fourth year levels.

Students should note that in the Science Faculty the minimum acceptable grade in a course which is required by a particular program or is used to meet a prerequisite, is a "C". Any student who fails to attain a "C" or better in such a course must repeat the course (at the next regular session) until a grade of "C" or better is attained. Students will not be eligible for graduation until such deficiencies are removed. The only exception will be granted for a single course with a “D” grade that is a normal part of the final year of that program, and is being taken for the first time in the final year.

NOTE: In individual cases certain modifications to these programs may be recommended by the Chairs of the Departments concerned, or their delegates.

Honours in Interdepartmental Programs

Application for Honours in the interdepartmental programs is made prior to registration in the final year to the appropriate Department Chairs or their delegates. The Honours content of interdepartmental programs consists of content in addition to that prescribed for the corresponding Major program, usually in the final year. Normally this will be in the form of one of the departmental honours or senior research projects (i.e. BIOL 4090, CHEM 4000, ESCI 4900, MATH 4100PHYS 4338, STAT 4100). Requirements for qualified students will be approved by the two Departments responsible for the program, in consultation.

NOTE: Requirements for Honours programs generally exceed those for Majors programs. In light of this, students may need to take on a heavier course load than would otherwise be the case to finish the degree in four years. Alternatively, students may need to extend the time needed to finish the degree.

Biology-Chemistry Option

The interdepartmental Biology-Chemistry Program combines courses from Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics, as well as electives from other disciplines. A minimum of 12 ch of electives must be from courses offered by the Faculty of Arts. Students will normally enter the Biology-Chemistry program after completing the first year science curriculum (32 ch). Students must consult with one of the Biology-Chemistry advisors in order to enter the program.

Two Biology-Chemistry program streams are offered. The Pre-Health Profession stream is recommended for students who may enter a professional health program upon graduation (i.e. medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, optometry, veterinary medicine, etc.). The Comprehensive stream is recommended for students who may consider graduate studies or careers in the biochemistry/molecular biology/pharmaceutical sectors. Both program streams are offered at the Major and Honours level. For the final year of the Honours program, students may choose between Honours by course and Honours by thesis. Entry into either of the Honours program streams is allowed after first year provided that a minimum CGPA of 3.0 has been attained (a CGPA of 3.0 must be maintained in subsequent years). Upon graduation, Honours students must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.0  (3.7 for a First Class Honours standing). A student completing all the course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Major degree.

First Year (common to all Biology-Chemistry programs)

BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006, BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017, CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017, MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063, PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072.

Pre-Health Profession stream, Major program (132 ch):

Second Year

BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018, BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028, BIOL 2792, CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422, CHEM 2601, MATH 2003

Third and Fourth Years

BIOL 1711, BIOL 2063 , BIOL 2068, BIOL 2761, BIOL 2812, CHEM 2416, CHEM 3421, CHEM 3523CHEM 3857, STAT 2264

Electives

  1. 12 ch of Arts courses.
  2. 15 ch of upper level Biology (3000 or 4000 level courses) including a minimum of 2 laboratory or field courses (denoted by the course designation "L" in the course description).
  3. 15 ch of 2000-4000 level Chemistry courses including a minimum of 10 ch in a discipline other than Organic Chemistry (i.e. Analytical, Physical or Inorganic Chemistry).
  4. Other electives to total a minimum of 132 ch.

Pre-Health Profession stream, Honours program (144 ch):

Second Year
BIOL 1711, BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018, BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028, BIOL 2792, BIOL 2812, CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422, CHEM 2601, MATH 2003, 3 ch elective.

Third and Fourth Years
BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068, BIOL 2761, CHEM 2416, CHEM 3421CHEM 3523CHEM 3857, STAT 2264. By fourth year, students must choose between Honours by course and Honours by thesis. For Honours by thesis add BIOL 4090 or CHEM 4000.

Electives

  1. 12 ch of Arts courses.
  2. For Honours by thesis, 15 ch of upper level Biology (3000 or 4000 level courses) including a minimum of 2 laboratory or field courses (denoted by the course designation "L" in the course description).
  3. For Honours by thesis, 18 ch of 2000-4000 level Chemistry courses including a minimum of 10 ch in a discipline other than Organic Chemistry (i.e. Analytical, Physical or Inorganic Chemistry).
  4. For Honours by course, 21 ch of upper level Biology (3000 or 4000 level courses) including a minimum of 2 laboratory or field courses (denoted by the course designation "L" in the course description).
  5. For Honours by course, 21 ch of 2000-4000 level Chemistry courses, including a minimum of 10 ch in a discipline other than Organic Chemistry (i.e. Analytical, Physical or Inorganic Chemistry).
  6. Other electives to total a minimum of 144 ch.

Comprehensive Stream, Majors Program (135 ch)

Second Year
BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018, BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028, one of CHEM 2201 or CHEM 2121, one of CHEM 2222 or CHEM 3122, CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422, CHEM 2601, MATH 2003, STAT 2264.

Third Year
BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068, BIOL 3031 , BIOL 3043CHEM 2416 , CHEM 3421, CHEM 3857, one of CHEM 3621, PHYS 3993 or PHYS 3892.

Fourth Year
BIOL 3242BIOL 3013, BIOL 4272, 1 Group B course**, CHEM 3523, CHEM 4503, CHEM 4513 1 Group A*.

Electives

  1. 12 ch of Arts courses.
  2. 4 ch from either electives or Group A courses must be from upper year CHEM labs (CHEM 2136/CHEM 3137/CHEM 2237/CHEM 3236/CHEM 3637/CHEM 4616)
  3. Other electives to total a minimum of 135 ch.

Comprehensive stream, Honours program (144 ch):

Second Year
BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018, BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028, one of CHEM 2201 or CHEM 2121, one of CHEM 2222 or CHEM 3122, CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422, CHEM 2601, MATH 2003, STAT 2264.

Third Year
BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068, BIOL 3031, BIOL 3242, and CHEM 2416, CHEM 3421CHEM 3857, one of CHEM 3621PHYS 3993 or PHYS 3892, 2 Group A courses*

Fourth Year 

BIOL 3043, BIOL 3013BIOL 4272, 1 Group B course**, CHEM 3003, CHEM 4513, CHEM 4523  1 Group A course*.

By fourth year, students must choose between Honours by course and Honours by thesis and add the following to their program:
i. Honours by course: add 3 Group A courses*.
ii. Honours by thesis: add BIOL 4090 or CHEM 4000. Please see the course descriptions for BIOL 4090 and CHEM 4000 for details regarding admission to the thesis research courses.

Electives

  1. 12 ch of Arts courses. 
  2. 4 ch from either electives or Group A must be from upper year CHEM labs (CHEM 2136/CHEM 3137/CHEM 2237/CHEM 3236/CHEM 3637/CHEM 4616)
  3. Other electives to total a minimum of 144 ch.

* Group A courses:

BIOL 3058BIOL 3073, BIOL 3133, BIOL 3149, BIOL 3162, BIOL 3207BIOL 3261, BIOL 3493, BIOL 3593, BIOL 3673, BIOL 3082, BIOL 3812, BIOL 3833, BIOL 3908, BIOL 3933, BIOL 4043, BIOL 4149***, BIOL 4182, BIOL 4533, BIOL 4581BIOL 5473, CHEM 3003, any 2000-4000 level CHEM course, MATH 2213, PHYS 3993.

** Group B courses:

BIOL 3058, BIOL 3207, BIOL 3908, BIOL 4182, BIOL 4533, BIOL 4581.

***Note that students can only receive credit for either BIOL 4149 or BIOL 4090.

BIOLOGY-MATHEMATICS/STATISTICS OPTION

Biology is a quantitative discipline and mathematics underpins all sub disciplines in Biology. Students with a strong quantitative background are better positioned for graduate research. Areas in which Math/Stat are used extensively include all areas of of ecology and evolution, bioinformatics, genomics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and systems biology. To ensure necessary Prerequisites are met when planning an individual program, students must consult with advisors from both departments, ideally prior to Second Year.

Requirements for the Majors Program

First Year

First year required courses are listed under the BSc general regulations. BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006, BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017, CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017, MATH 1003 or MATH 1053MATH 1013 or MATH 1063 must be included. Suggested electives are STAT 2264 and CS 1003 or CS 1073. CS 1003 or CS 1073, and STAT 2264, if not taken in first year must be taken later in the program.

Second Year

BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018MATH 2003, MATH 2013, MATH 2203, MATH 2213, plus 6 ch in Biology or Math/Stat , plus approved electives totalling at least 6 ch.  

NOTES:

  1. Students interested in the more molecular aspects of biology such as biochemistry, biophysics, etc. may be given permission to take BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028.
  2. Careful planning of the program will be required to avoid timetable problems.

Third and Fourth Years
Approved Biology courses (mostly at the 3000 and 4000 level) for a total of 24 ch in Biology, MATH 3003, MATH 3213, MATH 4563, STAT 3083, STAT 3093, plus a total of 9 ch approved Math/Stat courses, plus additional approved electives totalling 12 ch.  A minimum of 12 ch of electives must be from the Faculty of Arts.

A minimum of 129 ch is required for completion of this program.

NOTES:

  1. Students should consider the following courses in selecting Mathematics/Statistics courses.
    Analytical Orientation: MATH 3043, MATH 3073, MATH 3413, MATH 4503
    Statistical Orientation: STAT 4053 *, STAT 4073, STAT 4083STAT 3373 *, STAT 3383 *
    (Courses marked with an * are particularly recommended)
    Students should consider BIOL 2003, BIOL 3293 and BIOL 3943 in selecting Biology courses.
  2. MATH 4563 (cross-listed as BIOL 4563) is offered in alternate years. Special care is required in scheduling.

Requirements for the Honours Program
There are two Honours programs (Honours by Course and Honours by Thesis). Students must have (and maintain) a minimum CPGA of 3.0 to be accepted in and remain in either program. Upon graduation, the Honours student must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.7 for a First Class Honours standing and a final CGPA of at least 3.0 for Honours. A student completing all the course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Majors degree.

i.  Honours by Course (141  ch): In addition to the requirements for the Majors degree listed above, the student must complete 12 ch of approved Biology or Mathematics/Statistics courses at the 3000 or 4000 level (with at least one from each of the Biology and Mathematics/Statistics Departments).

ii. Honours by Thesis (141 ch): Refer to the requirements for an Honours by Course degree listed above.  In addition, students intending to complete an Honours by Thesis degree must arrange to complete their dissertation research with a faculty member in either the Department of Biology or Department of Mathematics and Statistics before applying to the program. (Joint supervision with a co-supervisor from each department is also possible.) Once an appropriate supervisor is found, the student must then write a letter to the Chair of the appropriate Department requesting entrance into the thesis course (one of BIOL 4090 or MATH 4100 or STAT 4100) as part of the additional 12 ch required by the Honours program.  A reader from the second department must also oversee the research project (unless the project is co-supervised by a member from each department). 

BIOLOGY-PHYSICS OPTION

Physical principles constrain the evolution and diversity of life. Current areas where Physics features most prominently in Biology include ecosystem ecology and global change biology, interactions of organisms with their physical environment, studies of metabolism and energy flux, and the physical principles of biological systems. Methodological applications such as isotope biology, and imaging also rely heavily on physical principles. Students interested in these areas will benefit from a strong background in both disciplines. To ensure necessary prerequisites are met when planning an individual program, students must consult with advisors from both departments, ideally prior to Second Year.

Requirements for the Majors Program (141 ch)
First Year
BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006, BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017, CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017, MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063, PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072, PHYS 1091 and PHYS 1092.

Second Year
BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018, plus 6 ch in Biology (second-year core courses) plus PHYS 2311, PHYS 2312, PHYS 2341, PHYS 2351, MATH 2003, MATH 2013 and (MATH 2213 or MATH 1503), STAT 2264 or STAT 2593.

Third and Fourth Years
24 ch of approved Biology courses (mostly at the 3000 and 4000 level), plus 30 ch of approved Physics courses, plus 12 ch of approved Arts electives.

Requirements for the Honours Program (153 ch)

To receive Honours in Biology-Physics, a student must complete a total of 156 ch, including the requirements for the Major Program, plus an additional 12 ch of approved Biology or Physics courses at the 3000 or 4000 level.  Students must have (and maintain) a minimum CGPA of 3.0 to be accepted in and remain in the Honours program. Application to the Honours program is initiated by writing a letter of intent to the Chair of Biology or Physics before preregistration at the end of Year III. BIOL 4090 (Honours Thesis Project) or PHYS 4338 (Advanced Research Project) is required and the course descriptions should be consulted for further information and specific procedures. Students must make arrangements to complete their dissertation research with a Faculty member in the Department of Biology or of Physics before applying to the Program. In each case, a reader from the second department must also oversee the research project.

The Honours student must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.7 to obtain First Class Honours standing upon graduation. A student completing all course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Majors degree.

CHEMISTRY-PHYSICS OPTION

The Chemistry-Physics Option offers a challenging program for strong students. This interdepartmental program provides a solid core of courses in both Chemistry and Physics. It is set up in such a way that a student may opt for the single disciplines of Chemistry or Physics after the second year. A BSc in this joint program would allow students to continue studies at the graduate level in either Physics or Physical Chemistry.

Careful choice of electives in first and second year will make any change from the joint program into a single discipline program easier.

First Year
CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017, PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072, PHYS 1091 and PHYS 1092, MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063, plus two more term lecture courses chosen from BIOL 1001, BIOL 1012, ESCI 1001, ESCI 1012, plus 6 ch electives.

NOTE: Students must have a minimum AGPA of 3.0 to enter second year of this program and they must maintain the 3.0 AGPA at the end of second year to proceed to third year. Students must have passed MATH 1013 or MATH 1063 before entering the second year of this program. Because of the challenging nature of the program, some students may plan to spread the required courses over five years.

Second Year
CHEM 2601, or PHYS 2341, CHEM 3637, MATH 2003, MATH 2013, MATH 2213, PHYS 2311, PHYS 2312, PHYS 2327, PHYS 2331, PHYS 2351, CS 1003 or CS 1073, plus 3 ch approved electives.

Third Year
CHEM 2002, CHEM 2201, CHEM 2222, CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422, CHEM 3621, PHYS 2372, PHYS 3336, PHYS 3331, PHYS 3351, CS 3113 or MATH 3413 or equivalent plus 3 ch approved electives.

Fourth Year
CHEM 3201, CHEM 3222, CHEM 3622, CHEM 4616, CHEM 4622, CHEM 4601 or PHYS 3752, PHYS 3322, PHYS 4332, PHYS 4351, plus 6 ch approved electives. Students in Honours add PHYS 4338 or CHEM 4000& and must have a minimum AGPA of 3.0 entering fourth year.

EARTH SCIENCES-PHYSICS OPTION

The program totals 148 ch for Major and 156 ch for Honours. This includes 12 ch of Earth Sciences field schools which take place outside of regular fall and winter terms. The fourth year has a lighter credit hour course load than third year to accommodate the addition of an Honours Project in fourth year. Students in a Major program may prefer to move some of the courses listed under third year into fourth year to even out the course load.

First Year
ESCI 1001, ESCI 1006 or ESCI 1026ESCI 1012, ESCI 1017, PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072, PHYS 1091 and PHYS 1092, MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063, CHEM CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017.

NOTE: Students must have already completed MATH 1013 or equivalent before entering the second year of this program.

Second Year
ESCI 2131, ESCI 2142 , ESCI 2211, ESCI 2321, ESCI 2703, PHYS 2311, PHYS 2312, PHYS 2372, MATH 2003, MATH 2013  plus 6 ch approved electives in Science or Computer Science.

Third Year
ESCI 3131, ESCI 3322, PHYS 2327, PHYS 2331, PHYS 2341, PHYS 2351, PHYS 3331, PHYS 3336, CS 3113 or MATH 3413 or equivalent plus 2 ch approved electives in Science or Computer Science.

Fourth Year
ESCI 3703,  ESCI 4501, ESCI 4512, PHYS 3322PHYS 3342, PHYS 3351, PHYS 4332, PHYS 4722 or PHYS 4823, plus 6 ch approved electives in Science or Computer Science.

Students in the Honours program add an honours project, PHYS 4338 or ESCI 4900.

MATHEMATICS/STATISTICS - ECONOMICS OPTION

The combination of mathematics, statistics and economics is a natural one as students will see practical applications of mathematics and statistics in their economics courses and the rigorous techniques from mathematics will aid students in their problem-solving skills. Requirements for a Science degree are listed below. Requirements for an Arts degree are available from either the Department of Mathematics and Statistics or the Department of Economics.

First Year
First year required courses are listed under the BSc general regulations.MATH 1013 or MATH 1063 must be included. CS 1003 or CS 1073, one of ECON 1014 and ECON 1024 or ECON 1013 and ECON 1023 may be taken in first or second year.  

Second Year
MATH 2003 , MATH 2013, MATH 2203, MATH 2213, ECON 1013, ECON 1023, CS 1003 or CS 1073 (if not taken in first year), plus approved electives to bring the course load to a minimum of 30 ch.

Third and Fourth Years

  1. MATH 3003, MATH 3043, and two courses chosen from MATH 3033, MATH 3073, MATH 3213, MATH 3243, MATH 3373, MATH 3473, MATH 3803, 3843, MATH 4423, MATH 4433 or MATH 4853 .
  2. STAT 3083, STAT 3093, STAT 4443, and three courses chosen from STAT 4083, STAT 3383, STAT 4053, STAT 4073 or STAT 3373.
  3. ECON 3013, ECON 3023, ECON 4013, ECON 4023, ECON 4625, ECON 4665, plus at least 3 additional term courses in Economics.
  4. An additional 9 ch of electives so that the total in third and fourth year is 66 ch. The minimum total number of credits for the degree is 135 ch.

Recommended electives: MATH 3413, MATH 3813, and any of the courses listed above.

Honours Requirements
MATH 3103 and MATH 3113 must be taken and MATH 3003 becomes an elective course. Honours students must take a total of 33 ch of upper level MATH/STAT courses. The minimum GPA for an honours degree from the Faculty of Science is 3.0.

NOTE: Some year-to-year variation in Economics course selection is possible. For example a student taking ECON 1014, ECON 1024 in year 1 may wish to take ECON 3013, ECON 3023 in year 2.

MATHEMATICS-PHYSICS OPTION

Both the Major and Honours versions of this option are demanding programs intended for strong students. The Honours Mathematics-Physics Program includes all the required courses of both an Honours Physics program and an Honours Mathematics program.

First Year
MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063, PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072, PHYS 1091 and PHYS 1092, CHEM 1001, 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017, plus two more term courses chosen from BIOL 1001BIOL 1012, ESCI 1001, ESCI 1012, plus 6 ch of electives.

HONOURS PROGRAM
Second Year
MATH 2003, MATH 2013, MATH 2203 MATH 2213, PHYS 2311, PHYS 2312, PHYS 2327, PHYS 2331, PHYS 2341, PHYS 2351, PHYS 2372, CS 1003 plus 3 ch Physics elective.

Third Year
MATH 3033, MATH 3043,  MATH 3103MATH 3113MATH 3243MATH 3213MATH 3413, PHYS 3322PHYS 3336PHYS 3342, PHYS 3351, plus 3 ch Physics elective.

Fourth Year
STAT 3083, PHYS 4321, PHYS 4332, PHYS 4351, PHYS 4371, plus 6 ch Mathematics elective, plus 6 ch other electives; and finally either MATH 4100 or PHYS 4338 (6 ch or 8 ch). (In either case, the research project will be jointly supervised by a reader from each Department.)

MAJOR PROGRAM

Second Year
MATH 2003, MATH 2013, MATH 2213, PHYS 2311, PHYS 2312, PHYS 2327, PHYS 2331, PHYS 2341, PHYS 2351, PHYS 2372, CS 1003, plus 6 ch elective.

Third and Fourth Years
MATH 3043 or MATH 3503, MATH 3243, MATH 3413, STAT 3083, PHYS 3322, PHYS 3336, PHYS 3342, PHYS 3351, PHYS 4321, PHYS 4332, 18 ch Mathematics electives*, 15 ch Physics electives , plus 3 ch electives.
* It is recommended that students choose MATH 3003 and MATH 3213 in Year 3. Other suggested Math electives would be MATH 2203 and MATH 3033.

Environmental Sciences Option 

Goal 

Do you want to explore and understand the impacts of humans on the environment, and of the environment on humans? Do you want to learn to use the scientific approach to solve environmental problems? Navigating the complex issues involved is a challenge that requires a broad range of skills and perspectives. This type of training is brought together at UNB through our interdepartmental programs in the Environmental Sciences. 

Programs 

Undergraduate programs in the Environmental Sciences encompass knowledge gleaned from all science disciplines and commence with a common core similar to that of other students in the Faculty of Science. This introduction provides the student with a theoretical and experiential grounding in scientific principles pertaining to earth’s environmental system: its biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. Students then advance to consider environmental issues from broader ethical, economic, and social viewpoints. At the same time, students are further developing their own scientific interests with a more specific collection of required and elective science courses. These advanced science courses are tailored to graduation as either a Major or Honours (by thesis) in Environmental Sciences with a concentration (i.e., stream) in one of six areas: 

 Biological Responses to the Environment 
 Chemical Environmental Perspectives 
 Environmetrics 
 Responsible Resource Recovery 
 Sun-Earth Interaction 
 Water-Earth Interaction 

There is no Minor program available in Environmental Sciences. Note, however, that a student (who is not in an Environmental Sciences program) can obtain a Minor in Environmental Studies.

General Outline 

First Year Core 

Fall 

SCI 1001; MATH 1003 or MATH 1053; CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006; ESCI 1012, ESCI 1017 

Plus lecture and laboratory pairing from one other science (see Streams for which should be taken in 1st year): BIOL 1001 and BIOL 1006, or PHYS 1061/1071 and PHYS 1091 

Winter 

SCI 1002; MATH 1013 or MATH 1063; CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017; ESCI 1001, ESCI 1006
Plus lecture and laboratory pairing from one other science (see Streams for which should be taken in 1st year): BIOL 1012 and BIOL 1017, or PHYS 1062/1072 and PHYS 1092 

2nd – 4th Year General Requirements (*see Streams for any specific courses that should be taken, and in what year) 

-Lecture and laboratory pairing of BIOL 1001 and BIOL 1006 or PHYS 1061/71 and PHYS 1091, whichever not counted as 1st year requirements 
-BIOL 1012 and BIOL 1017 if not taken as 1st Year requirement 
-MATH 1503 or MATH 2213 (Linear Algebra) 
-BIOL 2003, BIOL 2008 (Ecology) 
-At least one 2000-level lecture and laboratory pairing in Chemistry* 
-At least one 2000- or 3000-level course in Earth Sciences* 
-At least one 2000- or 3000-level course in Statistics* 
-PHYS 2902 (Environmental Physics) 
-ENVS 2003 (Environmental Studies) 
-ESCI 3442 (Geohydrology) 
-ESCI 4452 (Environmental Impact Assessment) 
-SCI 4999 (capstone course, to be taken in final year) 
-One course in Field Studies* 
-One course in Climate Change* 
-One course in Geographic Information Systems (GIS)* 
-One course in First Nations Studies* 
-One course in Ethics* 
-Two (additional) courses from the Faculty of Arts 

-For Major program, approximately 11 science courses in one of the six Streams (see below). 

-For Honours program, Thesis course* in addition to the requirements of the Major program. 

Streams in Environmental Sciences 

Students choose one of the six streams offered. The student’s interests and choice of 1st year core science courses will determine which stream is advised (A-group streams should take 1000-level BIOL courses in 1st year with 1000-level PHYS courses in a later year, B-group streams should take 1000-level PHYS in 1st year with 1000-level BIOL courses in a later year). 

A1) Biological Responses to the Environment 
A2) Chemical Environmental Perspectives 
A3) Environmetrics 
B4) Responsible Resource Recovery 
B5) Sun-Earth Interaction 
B6) Water-Earth Interaction 

A1) Stream in Biological Responses to the Environment 

Living organisms are constantly interacting with their environment and changing in response to it. At relatively small time scales, individuals do this biochemically, physiologically and behaviourally; at larger time scales, populations do this by adapting. At a time when our planet is being transformed by human activities, it is important to understand how living entities can or cannot respond to such changes. The “Biological Responses to the Environment” stream, supported by a strong science foundation and an examination of the environment from different perspectives, focuses on a deep knowledge of the various life forms on our planet and their responses at all levels (molecular, cellular, organismal, population and community) to the environment. 

Students particularly interested in management aspects should consider the Wildlife Conservation Major in the ENR Program. 

Major program (141 ch) 

1st Year (18 ch + 19 ch) 

Fall: BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006; MATH 1003 or MATH 1053; CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006; ESCI 1012, ESCI 1017; SCI 1001. 

Winter: BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017; MATH 1013 or MATH 1063; CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017; ESCI 1001, ESCI 1006; SCI 1002. 

2nd Year (17 ch + 18 ch) 

Fall: BIOL 2003, BIOL 2008 (Ecology lecture and lab, 6 ch); BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028 (Biochemistry lecture and lab, 6 ch); CHEM 2401 or CHEM 2421, CHEM 2416 (lecture and lab in Organic Chemistry I, 5 ch). 

Winter: BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018 (Evolutionary Genetics lecture and lab, 6 ch); BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068 (Biological Diversity lecture and lab, 6 ch); STAT 2264 (Statistics for Biology, 3 ch); ENVS 2003 (Introduction to Environmental Studies, 3 ch). 

3rd and 4th Year (Fa = Fall term, Wi = Winter term, Su = Summer term; should add to minimum of 68 ch for a Major) 

Core courses (42 ch): 

-PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1091 (Introductory Physics lecture and lab, 5 ch) (3rd Year, Fa); 
-MATH 1503 or MATH 2213 (Linear Algebra, 3 ch); 
-ESCI 3271/BIOL 3371 (Paleontology, 4 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 3442 (Geohydrology, 4 ch, Wi); 
-ESCI 4452 (Environment Impact Assessment, 4 ch, Wi); 
-PHYS 2902 (Environmental Physics, 3 ch, Wi); 
-SCI 4999 (Interconnections in Environmental Sciences, 3 ch, Final year); 
-Field Studies: one of BIOL 3173 (Marine Biology Field Course (O), 4 ch, Su), BIOL 3383 (Research Foundations in Field Ecology (O), 4 ch, Su), BIOL 4443 (International Ecology Field Course (A), 4 ch, Wi), the Marine Block Semester, or equivalent; 
-Climate Change: one of BIOL 4351 (Climate Change and Environmental Response, 3 ch, Fa), ESCI 3292 (Climate and Environmental Change Through Time (A), 4 ch, Wi); 
-GIS: one of FOR 1285 (Introduction to GIS, 3 ch, online), FOR 2281 (GIS with Applications in Forestry and Environmental Management, 3 ch, Fa or Wi), GGE 3423 (Introduction to GIS, 4 ch, Fa); 
-First Nations Studies: one of ABRG 3684 (Aspects of Maliseet and Mi'kmaq Culture, 3 ch, Wi); ENR 3000 (Indigenous Issues & Perspectives in Natural Resources Stewardship, 3 ch, Fa); 
-Ethics: one of PHIL 2201 (Introduction to Ethics, 3 ch, Fa); PHIL 2206 (Environmental Ethics, 3 ch, Wi); ANTH 4024 (Anthropology and Ethics (O), 3 ch); ENR 1001(Resource Management Issues, Ethics and Communication I, 4 ch, Fa).

Other courses (27 ch): 

-Seven stream courses from the list below (at least one course from each of the 5 subgroups; minimum 21 ch); 
-Two Arts electives, e.g., ECON 1013 or ECON 1014 (Microeconomics, 3 ch, Fa or Wi), ECON 3755 (Environmental Economics, 3 ch, Fa), ECON 3766 (Economics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch), ANTH 2114 (Human Systems of Exchange: Nature and Culture, 3 ch), PHIL 3422 (Philosophy of Science, 3 ch), POLS 1803 (Politics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch, Fa); 

List of stream electives: 

Molecular & Cell Subgroup 

BIOL 3031 Cell Signaling, 3 ch 
BIOL 3043 Cell Biology, 3 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3013 Advanced Genetics, 3 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3073 Biochemistry of Gene Expression, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 3162 Developmental Biology of Animals, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 3242 Molecular Evolution, 3 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3261 Microbiology, 3 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3311 Immunobiology, 3 ch (Wi) 
BIOL 4043 Cellular Metabolism, 3 ch (Wi) 

Organismal Subgroup 

BIOL 1846 New Brunswick Plants and Their Habitats, 4 ch, Su 
BIOL 3083 Botany, 5 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3261 Microbiology, 3 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3493 Introduction to Virology, 3 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3603 Invertebrate Zoology, 5 ch, Fa, Fa 
BIOL 3673 General Parasitology, 3 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3703 Vertebrate Zoology, 5 ch, Wi 
BIOL 3812 Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinology, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 3883 Entomology, 5 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3801 Animal Physiology, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 3873 Ethology, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4221 Diversity, Evolution and Ecology of Marine Plants, 5 ch, Fa 
BIOL 4581 Eukaryotic Microbiology, 5 ch, Fa 
BIOL 4691 Biology of Marine Parasites, 5 ch, Fa 
BIOL 4723 Ornithology (cross-listed with FOR 4723), 5 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4732 Mammalogy, 5 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4741 Fish Biology, 3 ch, Fa 
BIOL 4823 Life in Extreme Environments (A), 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4851 Ecology of Marine Birds (A), 5 ch 
BIOL 4981 Biology of Freshwater and Marine Fishes (A), 5 ch, Fa 

Population, Community and Ecosystem Subgroup 

BIOL 3113 Evolutionary Ecology, 5 ch, Wi 
BIOL 3293 Population Genetics, 4 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3441 Ecology of Populations and Communities (cross-listed with FOR 3445), 4 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3633 Biological Oceanography, 3 ch
BIOL 4393 Trophic and Food Web Ecology, 3 ch 
BIOL 4641 Coastal Marine Ecology, 5 ch, Fa 
BIOL 4773 River and Lake Ecosystems (A), 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4863 Environmental Biology (A), 4 ch, Fa 
BIOL 4851 Ecology of Marine Birds (A), 5 ch 
BIOL 4973 Topics in Aquatic Ecology (A), 3 ch 
BIOL 4981 Biology of Freshwater and Marine Fishes (A), 5 ch, Fa 

Analytical Skills Subgroup 

BIOL 3058 Genetic Analysis Laboratory, 4 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3113 Evolutionary Ecology, 5 ch, Wi 
BIOL 3207 Microbiology Laboratory, 4 ch, Wi 
BIOL 3293 Population Genetics, 4 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3908 Laboratory Studies in Vertebrate Physiology, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 3933 Practical Computing in Biology, 3 ch, Fa 
BIOL 3943 Hypothesis Testing in Biology, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4182 Experimental Embryology, 4 ch, Fa 
BIOL 4211 Marine Research Experience, 2 ch, Fa 
BIOL 4221 Diversity, Evolution and Ecology of Marine Plants, 5 ch, Fa 
BIOL 4368 Techniques in Paleoecology and Climate Change, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4393 Trophic and Food Web Ecology, 3 ch 
BIOL 4523 Phylogenetics, 5 ch, Fa 
BIOL 4533 Bioinformatics: Computational Analysis of Genes and Genomes, 4ch, Wi 
BIOL 4563 Mathematical Biology (A) (cross-listed with MATH 4563), 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4746 Laboratory Studies in Fish Biology (A), 4 ch, Fa 
BIOL 5473 Experimental Design and Data Analysis in Biology and Forestry, 3 ch 
CHEM 2121, CHEM 2136 Analytical Chemistry 1 lecture and lab, 5 ch, Fa), or 
CHEM 2201, CHEM 2237 Inorganic Chemistry 1 lecture and lab, 5 ch, Fa) 

Applied Biology Subgroup 

BIOL 4191 Wildlife Management, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4233 Conservation Biology, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4302 Microbial Biotechnology, 3 ch, Wi 
BIOL 4991 Aquaculture in Canada, 5 ch, Fa 

Honours program (150 ch) 

Same courses as for a Major program, plus BIOL 4090 (Honours Thesis Project, 9 ch). Students must have (and maintain) a minimum CGPA of 3.0 to be accepted in and remain in the Honours program. Application to the Honours by Thesis program in Biology is initiated by writing a letter of intent to the Chair of Biology before preregistration at the end of year 3. Students must make arrangements to complete their dissertation research with a Faculty member in the Department of Biology before applying to the program. Consult the course description for BIOL 4090 for further information and specific procedures. The Honours student must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.7 to obtain First Class Honours standing upon graduation. A student completing all course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Majors degree.

A2) Stream in Chemical Environmental Perspectives 

Understanding the properties and reactivity of molecules, in addition to their identification and quantification, is at the heart of understanding and mitigating human impact on the environment. This knowledge is essential for monitoring industry, investigating and solving environmental problems, and creating paths for human activity that are less harmful to the environment. The stream in “Chemical Environmental Perspectives”, supported by a strong science foundation and an examination of the environment from different perspectives, focuses on training in chemistry. 

Major program (140 ch) 

1st Year (18 ch + 19 ch) 

Fall: MATH 1003 or MATH 1053; CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006; ESCI 1012, ESCI 1017; BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006; SCI 1001. 

Winter: MATH 1013 or MATH 1063; CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017; ESCI 1001, ESCI 1006; BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017; SCI 1002. 

2nd Year (37 ch) 

Two of the following pairs: CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422 (Organic Chemistry I and II, 6 ch); CHEM 2201, CHEM 2222 (Inorganic Chemistry I and II, 6 ch); CHEM 2121, CHEM 3122(Analytical Chemistry I and II, 6 ch); 

Two of CHEM 2416 (Organic Chemistry Laboratory I, 2 ch), CHEM 2237 (Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory I, 2 ch), CHEM 2136 (Analytical Chemistry Laboratory I, 2 ch); 

Also: 

Fall: BIOL 2003, BIOL 2008 (Ecology lecture and lab, 6 ch); ENVS 2003 (Introduction to Environmental Studies, 3 ch). 

Winter: BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018 (Evolutionary Genetics lecture and lab, 6 ch); MATH 1503 or MATH 2213 (Linear Algebra, 3 ch); STATS 2264 (Statistics for Biology, 3 ch). 

3rd and 4th Year (Fa = Fall term, Wi = Winter term, Su = Summer term; should add to minimum of 62 ch for a Major) 

Core courses (45 ch): 

-PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1091 (Introductory Physics lecture and lab, 5 ch) (3rd Year, Fa); 
-One lecture and laboratory pairing from CHEM 3000-4000 (4-5 ch): recommend CHEM 4112 (Advanced Analytical Chemistry, 2 ch) and CHEM 3137 (Analytical Chemistry Laboratory II, 2 ch); 
-BIOL 2023 (Introductory Biochemistry, 3 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 3271 (Paleontology, 4 ch, Fa -required if planning to take ESCI 3292 Climate Change) or ESCI 2211 (Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, 4 ch, Fa), or ESCI 2602(Principles of Geochemistry, 4 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 3442 (Geohydrology, 4 ch, Wi); 
-ESCI 4452 (Environment Impact Assessment, 4 ch, Wi); 
-PHYS 2902 (Environmental Physics, 3 ch, Wi);
-SCI 4999 (Interconnections in Environmental Sciences, 3 ch, Final year); 
-Field Studies: one of BIOL 1846 (New Brunswick Plants and Their Habitats, 4 ch, Su), BIOL 3173 (Marine Biology Field Course (O), 4 ch, Su), BIOL 3383 (Research Foundations in Field Ecology (O), 4 ch, Su), BIOL 4443 (International Ecology Field Course (A), 4 ch, Wi), ESCI 1703 (Field School (1 week), 3 ch, Su), or equivalent; 
-Climate Change: one of BIOL 4351 (Climate Change and Environmental Response, 3 ch, Fa), ESCI 3292 (Climate and Environmental Change Through Time (A), 4 ch, Wi); 
-GIS: one of FOR 1285 (Introduction to GIS, 3 ch, online), FOR 2281 (GIS with Applications in Forestry and Environmental Management, 3 ch, Fa or Wi), GGE 3423(Introduction to GIS, 4 ch, Fa); 
-First Nations Studies: one of ABRG 3684 (Aspects of Maliseet and Mi'kmaq Culture, 3 ch, Wi); ENR 3000 (Indigenous Issues & Perspectives in Natural Resources Stewardship, 3 ch, Fa); 
-Ethics: one of PHIL 2201 (Introduction to Ethics, 3 ch, Fa); PHIL 2206 (Environmental Ethics, 3 ch, Wi); ANTH 4024 (Anthropology and Ethics (O), 3 ch); ENR 1001(Resource Management Issues, Ethics and Communication I, 4 ch). 

Other courses (21 ch): 

-Five stream courses from the list below (minimum 15 ch); 
-Two Arts electives, e.g., ECON 1013 or ECON 1014 (Microeconomics, 3 ch, Fa or Wi), ECON 3755 (Environmental Economics, 3 ch, Fa), ECON 3766 (Economics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch), ANTH 3117 (Human Systems of Exchange: Nature and Culture, 3 ch), PHIL 3422 (Philosophy of Science, 3 ch), POLS 1803 (Politics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch, Fa). 

List of stream electives: 

BIOL 1846 New Brunswick Plants and Their Habitats, 4 ch Su (if not taken as a core course) 
BIOL 2028 Laboratory in Biochemistry, 3 ch 
BIOL 2063 and BIOL 2068 Biological Diversity lecture and lab, 6 ch 
BIOL 3013 Advanced Genetics, 3 ch 
BIOL 3031 Cell Signaling, 3 ch 
BIOL 3043 Cell Biology, 3 ch 
BIOL 3073 Biochemistry of Gene Expression*, 3 ch 
BIOL 3113 Evolutionary Ecology, 5 ch 
BIOL 3162 Developmental Biology of Animals*, 3 ch 
BIOL 3261 Microbiology*, 3 ch 
BIOL 3311 Immunobiology, 3 ch 
BIOL 3441 Ecology of Populations and Communities (cross-listed with FOR 3445), 4 ch 
BIOL 3633 Biological Oceanography, 3 ch 
BIOL 3801 Animal Physiology, 3 ch 
BIOL 3812 Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinology, 3 ch 
BIOL 3933 Practical Computing in Biology, 3 ch 
BIOL 3943 Hypothesis Testing in Biology, 3 ch 
BIOL 4043 Cellular Metabolism*, 3 ch 
BIOL 4302 Microbial Biotechnology*, 3 ch 
BIOL 4773 River and Lake Ecosystems (A), 3 ch 
CHEM 2321 Structural Analysis in Chemistry, 3 ch 
CHEM 2601 Physical Chemistry I, 3 ch 
CHEM 3137 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory II, 2 ch (if not taken as a core course)
CHEM 3201 Inorganic Chemistry III, 3 ch 
CHEM 3222 Inorganic Chemistry IV, 3 ch 
CHEM 3422 Organic Chemistry IV, 3 ch 
CHEM 3523 Medicinal Chemistry, 3 ch 
CHEM 3601 Physical Chemistry II, 3 ch 
CHEM 4112 Advanced Analytical Chemistry, 2 ch (if not taken as a core course) 
CHEM 4222 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 2 ch 
CHEM 4422 Advanced Organic Chemistry, 2 ch 
CHEM 4416 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II, 2 ch 
ESCI 2602 Principles of Geochemistry, 4 ch 
ESCI 3282 Introductory Oceanography and Paleoceanography (A), 4 ch 
ESCI 3631 Geochemistry of Natural Waters, 4 ch 

Honours program (149 ch) 

Same courses as for a Major program, plus CHEM 4000 (Senior Research Projects, 9 ch). Students must have (and maintain) a minimum CGPA of 3.0 to be accepted in and remain in the Honours program. Students who choose this path will conduct a research project in collaboration with a Faculty member. A minimum of 9 hrs per week is required to successfully accomplish the goals of a senior research project, and a thesis, and presentation of thesis work to the department, are required at the end of the academic year. The Honours student must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.7 to obtain First Class Honours standing upon graduation. A student completing all course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Majors degree. 

A3) Stream in Environmetrics 

The amount of data collected in sampling and monitoring the environment is on the rise, as many different monitoring technologies are developed and used. Consequently, there is a need for trained personnel to develop and use mathematical, statistical, and other quantitative methods in the environmental sciences, environmental engineering, and environmental monitoring and protection. The “Environmetrics” stream, supported by a strong science foundation and an examination of the environment from different perspectives, focuses on in-depth mathematical and statistical training. 

Major program (138 ch) 

1st Year (18 ch + 19 ch) 

Fall: MATH 1003 or MATH 1053; CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006; ESCI 1012, ESCI 1017; BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006; SCI 1001. 

Winter: MATH 1013 or MATH 1063; CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017; ESCI 1001, ESCI 1006; BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017; SCI 1002. 

2nd Year (19 ch + 18 ch) 

Fall: MATH 2003 (Intermediate Mathematics I, 3 ch); STAT 3083 (Probability and Mathematical Statistics I, 3 ch); PHYS 1061, PHYS 1091 (5 ch); one Arts or free elective (3 ch, see suggestions below);

Also, one of the following pairs: CHEM 2121, CHEM 2136 (Analytical Chemistry 1 lecture and lab, 5 ch); CHEM 2201, CHEM 2237 (Inorganic Chemistry 1 lecture and lab, 5 ch). 

Winter: Math 2213 (Linear Algebra I, 3 ch); STAT 3093 (Probability and Mathematical Statistics II (A), 3 ch); PHYS 1062, PHYS 1092 (5 ch); CS 1073 (Introduction to Computer Programming I (in Java), 4 ch); ENVS 2003 (Introduction to Environmental Studies, 3 ch). 

3rd and 4th Year (Fa = Fall term, Wi = Winter term, Su = Summer term; should add to minimum of 64 ch for a Major) 

Core courses (43 ch): 

-BIOL 2003, BIOL 2008 (Ecology lecture and lab, 6 ch, Fa); 
-BIOL 3933 (Practical Computing in Biology, 3 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 3271 (Paleontology, 4 ch, Fa -required if planning to take ESCI 3292 Climate Change) or ESCI 2211 (Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, 4 ch, Fa), or ESCI 2602 (Principles of Geochemistry, 4 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 3442 (Geohydrology, 4 ch, Wi); 
-ESCI 4452 (Environment Impact Assessment (A), 4 ch, Wi); 
-PHYS 2902 (Environmental Physics, 3 ch, Wi); 
-SCI 4999 (Interconnections in Environmental Sciences, 3 ch, Final year); 
-Field Studies: one of BIOL 1846 (New Brunswick Plants and Their Habitats, 4 ch, Su), BIOL 3173 (Marine Biology Field Course (O), 4 ch, Su), BIOL 3383 (Research Foundations in Field Ecology (O), 4 ch, Su), BIOL 4443 (International Ecology Field Course (A), 4 ch, Wi), ESCI 1703 (Field School (1 week), 3 ch, Su), or equivalent; 
-Climate Change: one of BIOL 4351 (Climate Change and Environmental Response, 3 ch, Fa), ESCI 3292 (Climate and Environmental Change Through Time (A), 4 ch, Wi); 
-GIS: GGE 3423 (Introduction to GIS, 4 ch, Fa); 
-First Nations Studies: one of ABRG 3684 (Aspects of Maliseet and Mi'kmaq Culture, 3 ch, Wi); ENR 3000 (Indigenous Issues & Perspectives in Natural Resources Stewardship, 3 ch, Fa); 
-Ethics: one of PHIL 2201 (Introduction to Ethics, 3 ch, Fa); PHIL 2206 (Environmental Ethics, 3 ch, Wi); ANTH 4024 (Anthropology and Ethics (O), 3 ch); ENR 1001 (Resource Management Issues, Ethics and Communication I, 4 ch, Fa). 

Other courses (21 ch): 

-Five stream courses from the list below; 
-One or two (if not taken in 2nd Year) Arts elective, e.g., ECON 1013 or ECON 1014 (Microeconomics, 3 ch, Fa or Wi), ECON 3755 (Environmental Economics, 3 ch, Fa), ECON 3766 (Economics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch), ANTH 3117 (Human Systems of Exchange: Nature and Culture, 3 ch), PHIL 3422 (Philosophy of Science, 3 ch), POLS 1803 (Politics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch, Fa); 
-One (if not taken in 2nd Year) free elective (can be from the stream’s list below). 

List of suggested stream electives (free elective can also be from this list); other upper year Math/Stats courses may be discussed with an advisor: 

MATH 2013 Intermediate Mathematics II, 3 ch 
MATH 3043 or MATH 3503 Ordinary Differential Equations, 3 ch 
MATH 3003 or MATH 3103 Applied Analysis or Analysis I, 3 ch 
MATH 3113 Analysis II, 3 ch
MATH 3073 Partial Differential Equations, 3 ch 
MATH 3413 Introduction to Numerical Methods, 3 ch 
MATH 3473 Mathematical Modelling (A), 3 ch 
MATH 4142 Introduction to Dynamical Systems (O), 3 ch 
MATH 4563 Mathematical Biology (A), 3 ch 
STAT 3373 Elementary Experimental Design, 3 ch 
STAT 4043 Sample Survey Theory, 3 ch 
STAT 4053 Regression Analysis, 3 ch 
STAT 4073 Categorical Data Analysis, 3 ch 
STAT 4083 Introduction to Multivariate Statistics, 3 ch 
STAT 4293 Statistical Computing, 3 ch 
STAT 4443 Time Series Analysis and Applications (A), 3 ch 

Honours program (147 ch) 

Same courses as for a Major program, plus MATH 4100 or STAT 4100 (Honours Project, 6 ch), plus one 3rd or 4th year Math/STAT course (3 ch). Students must have (and maintain) a minimum CGPA of 3.0 to be accepted in and remain in the Honours program. Students normally choose an Honours or a Majors degree in the Third Year. Students must apply to the Department Chair for admission to the Honours program. The Honours degree is the normal prerequisite for graduate study in the mathematical sciences. The Honours student must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.7 to obtain First Class Honours standing upon graduation. A student completing all course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Majors degree. 

B4) Stream in Responsible Resource Recovery 

For society to continue to function, extraction of our gradually depleting geological resources will remain a necessity (e.g., aggregate, fertilizer, metal, petroleum and water for agriculture, communications, construction, lubricants, plastics, renewable energy, transport). The next generation of scientists must not only carefully manage these dwindling resources, but also explore and extract them with much greater awareness and consideration of both the risk of environmental degradation and pollution, and the subsequent management of waste material. The “Responsible Resource Recovery” stream provides the student with knowledge and understanding of a broad range of environmental and socio-economic issues and how such issues relate to the science of geological resources. 

Major Program (142 ch) 

1st Year (18 ch + 19 ch) 

Fall: ESCI 1012, ESCI 1017; CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006; MATH 1003 or MATH 1053; PHYS 1061, PHYS 1091; SCI 1001. 

Winter: ESCI 1001, ESCI 1006; CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017; MATH 1013 or MATH 1063; PHYS 1062, PHYS 1092; SCI 1002. 

2nd Year (17 ch + 19 ch + 5 ch field school = 41 ch)

Fall: ESCI 2131 (Earth and Planetary Materials, 4 ch), ESCI 2211 (Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, 4 ch), ESCI 2602 (Principles of Geochemistry, 4 ch); BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006 (Biological Principles I, lecture and lab, 5 ch). 

Winter: ESCI 2142 (Mineralogy and Petrology, 4 ch), ESCI 2321 (Structural Geology 1, 4 ch); BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017 (Biological Principles II, lecture and lab, 5 ch); MATH 1503 or MATH 2213 (Linear Algebra, 3 ch); STAT 2264 (Statistics for Biology, 3 ch); 

And: ESCI 2703 (Field School (2 weeks), 5 ch) after April exams. 

3rd and 4th Year (Fa = Fall term, Wi = Winter term, Su = Summer term; should add to minimum of 65 ch for a Major) 

Core courses (42 ch): 

-BIOL 2003, BIOL 2008 (Ecology lecture and lab, 6 ch, Fa); 
-CHEM 2121, CHEM 2136 (Analytical Chemistry I lecture and lab, 5 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 3442 (Geohydrology, 4 ch, Wi); 
-ESCI 4452 (Environment Impact Assessment (A), 4 ch, Wi);
-ENVS 2003 (Introduction to Environmental Studies, 3 ch, Fa or Wi); 
-PHYS 2902 (Environmental Physics, 3 ch, Wi); 
-SCI 4999 (Interconnections in Environmental Sciences, 3 ch, Final year); 
-Climate Change: ESCI 3292 (Climate and Environmental Change Through Time (A), 4 ch, Wi); 
-GIS: GGE 3423 (Introduction to GIS, 4 ch, Fa); 
-First Nations Studies: one of ABRG 3684 (Aspects of Maliseet and Mi'kmaq Culture, 3 ch, Wi); ENR 3000 (Indigenous Issues & Perspectives in Natural Resources Stewardship, 3 ch, Fa); 
-Ethics: one of PHIL 2201 (Introduction to Ethics, 3 ch, Fa); PHIL 2206 (Environmental Ethics, 3 ch, Wi); ANTH 4024 (Anthropology and Ethics (O), 3 ch); ENR 1001(Resource Management Issues, Ethics and Communication I, 4 ch, Fa). 

Other courses (22 ch): 

One of: ESCI 3482 (Mineral Resources, Economics, and the Environment, 3 ch, Wi) or ESCI 3492 (Petroleum Geoscience (A), 4 ch, Wi) 

One of: ESCI 3631 (Geochemistry of Natural Waters (A), 4 ch, Fa); ESCI 4501 (Applied Geophysics I, 4 ch, Wi); ESCI 4512 (Applied Geophysics II, 4 ch, Fa) 

-Three stream courses from the list below (minimum 9 ch); 
-Two Arts electives, e.g., ECON 1013 or ECON 1014 (Microeconomics, 3 ch, Fa or Wi), ECON 3755 (Environmental Economics, 3 ch, Fa), ECON 3766 (Economics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch), ANTH 3117 (Human Systems of Exchange: Nature and Culture, 3 ch), PHIL 3422 (Philosophy of Science, 3 ch), POLS 1803 (Politics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch, Fa). 

List of stream electives: 

ESCI 2522 Theory of the Earth, 3 ch 
ESCI 3131 Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks, 4 ch 
ESCI 3322 Structural Geology II, 4 ch 
ESCI 3411 Rock Mechanics, 4 ch 
ESCI 3482 Mineral Resources, Economics, and the Environment, 3 ch 
ESCI 3492 Petroleum Geoscience (A), 4 ch 
ESCI 3621 Exploration Geochemistry (A), 4 ch 
ESCI 3703 3rd Year Field School (2 weeks), 5 ch (before Fall classes of 4th Year) 
ESCI 3713 Geoenvironmental Field School (2 weeks) (A), 5 ch (after April exams) 
ESCI 4212 Sedimentary Environments, Landforms, and Sequences (A), 4 ch 
ESCI 4401 Applied Glacial Geology, 4 ch 
ESCI 4412 Applied Rock Mechanics (A), 4 ch 
ESCI 4461 Economic Geology I, 4 ch 
ESCI 4472 Economic Geology II (A), 4 ch 
ESCI 4501 Applied Geophysics I, 4 ch 
ESCI 4512 Applied Geophysics II, 4 ch 
ESCI 4612 Isotope Geochemistry (A), 3 ch 

Honours program (150 ch) 

Same courses as for a Major program, plus ESCI 4900 (Thesis Project, 8 ch). Students must have (and maintain) a minimum CGPA of 3.0 to be accepted in and remain in the Honours program. In the second term of a student’s next-to-last year of undergraduate study, a student should approach a faculty supervisor to arrange a thesis topic and schedule. A written request for admission to the program then must be submitted to the Chair of Department prior to the last day to add classes in the Fall (Winter) term of the student’s final year. The Honours student must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.7 to obtain First Class Honours standing upon graduation. A student completing all course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Majors degree. 

B5) Stream in Sun-Earth Interaction 

Among the many challenges that humanity faces at this beginning of the 21st century are concerns arising from climate change and various impacts on societies resulting from the interaction of Earth with the Sun. To face these challenges requires advancement of our knowledge and understanding of the dynamics of the Sun and its effects on the Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere. The goal of the "Sun-Earth Interaction” stream is to provide a curriculum that will focus on the study of various physical processes taking place in the solar-terrestrial environment, and quantify the energy transport mechanisms that drive life on planet Earth. 

Major program (145 ch) 

1st Year (18 ch + 19 ch) 

Fall: PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1091; CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006; ESCI 1012, ESCI 1017; MATH 1003 or MATH 1053; SCI 1001. 

Winter: PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072, PHYS 1092CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017ESCI 1001, ESCI 1006; MATH 1013 or MATH 1063; SCI 1002. 

2nd Year (18 ch + 17 ch) 

Fall: PHYS 2311 (Mechanics I, 4 ch); PHYS 2351 (Quantum Physics, 3 ch); MATH 2003 (Intermediate Mathematics I, 3 ch); BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006 (Biological Principles I, lecture and lab, 5 ch); CHEM 2421 (Organic Chemistry I, lecture, 3 ch).

Winter: PHYS 2312 (Mechanics II, 3 ch); MATH 2013 (Intermediate Mathematics II, 3 ch), MATH 2213 (Linear Algebra I, 3 ch); BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017 (Biological Principles II, lecture and lab, 5 ch); CHEM 2422 (Organic Chemistry II, lecture, 3 ch). 

3rd and 4th Year (Fa = Fall term, Wi = Winter term, Su = Summer term; should add to minimum of 73 ch for a Major) 

Core courses (32 ch in physics + 35 ch in other core courses): 

-Fall physics courses: PHYS 2331 (Research Skills, 3 ch), PHYS 2341 (Thermal Physics, 3 ch), PHYS 3331 (Methods of Theoretical Physics, 4 ch), PHYS 3351 (Quantum Mechanics I, 4 ch), PHYS 3883 (Atmospheric Physics (A), 3 ch); 

-Winter physics courses: PHYS 2372 (Waves, 3 ch), PHYS 2902 (Environmental Physics, 3 ch), PHYS 3322 (Electromagnetism I, 3 ch), PHYS 3342 (Statistical Physics, 3 ch), PHYS 3752 (Atomic and Molecular Physics (O), 3 ch); 

Also: 

-BIOL 2003, BIOL 2008 (Ecology lecture and lab, 6 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 3271 (Paleontology, 4 ch, Fa -required if planning to take ESCI 3292 Climate Change) or ESCI 2211 (Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, 4 ch, Fa), or ESCI 2602 (Principles of Geochemistry, 4 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 3442 (Geohydrology, 4 ch, Wi); 
-ESCI 4452 (Environment Impact Assessment (A), 4 ch, Wi);
-ENVS 2003 (Introduction to Environmental Studies, 3 ch, Fa or Wi); 
-SCI 4999 (Interconnections in Environmental Sciences, 3 ch, Final year); 
-Field Studies: one of BIOL 1846 (New Brunswick Plants and Their Habitats, 4 ch, Su), BIOL 3383 (Research Foundations in Field Ecology (O), 4 ch, Su), BIOL 4443 (International Ecology Field Course (A), 4 ch, Wi), ESCI 1703 (Field School (1 week), 3 ch, Su), or equivalent; 
-Climate Change: one of BIOL 4351 (Climate Change and Environmental Response, 3 ch, Fa), ESCI 3292 (Climate and Environmental Change Through Time (A), 4 ch, Wi); 
-GIS: one of FOR 1285 (Introduction to GIS, 3 ch, online), FOR 2281 (GIS with Applications in Forestry and Environmental Management, 3 ch, Fa or Wi), GGE 3423(Introduction to GIS, 4 ch, Fa); 
-First Nations Studies: one of ABRG 3684 (Aspects of Maliseet and Mi'kmaq Culture, 3 ch, Wi); ENR 3000 (Indigenous Issues & Perspectives in Natural Resources Stewardship, 3 ch, Fa); 
-Ethics: one of PHIL 2201 (Introduction to Ethics, 3 ch, Fa); PHIL 2206 (Environmental Ethics, 3 ch, Wi); ANTH 4024 (Anthropology and Ethics (O), 3 ch); ENR 1001 (Resource Management Issues, Ethics and Communication I, 4 ch, Fa). 

Other courses (6 ch): 

-Two Arts electives, e.g., ECON 1013 or ECON 1014 (Microeconomics, 3 ch, Fa or Wi), ECON 3755 (Environmental Economics, 3 ch, Fa), ECON 3766 (Economics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch), ANTH 3117 (Human Systems of Exchange: Nature and Culture, 3 ch), PHIL 3422 (Philosophy of Science, 3 ch), POLS 1803 (Politics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch, Fa).

Honours program (153 ch) 

Same courses as for a Major program, plus PHYS 4338 (Advanced Research Project, 8 ch). Students must have (and maintain) a minimum CGPA of 3.0 to be accepted in and remain in the Honours program. Students must have arranged with the Department for an appropriate project by October of their final year and must submit a report to the Department. The deadline for the report is decided and circulated each year, but is usually late in March. Honours student must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.7 to obtain First Class Honours standing upon graduation. A student completing all course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Majors degree. 

B6) Stream in Water-Earth Interaction 

Across our environment, water has the capacity to dissolve solids from the earth’s surface and substrate, transport the solutes, and precipitate new materials. The solutes can be essential nutrients for life, or toxic contaminants. When flowing as surface- or ground-water, it may also remove, move, and deposit solid material. The “Water-Earth Interaction” stream provides the student with the relevant science underpinning the global water supply and water quality, river and coastal erosion, and siltation. Electives allow students to further investigate any interest in hydrogeochemistry, biosphere interactions, or water management. 

Students particularly interested in management aspects should consider the Water Resources Management Major in the ENR Program. 

Major program (142 ch) 

1st Year (18 ch + 19 ch) 

Fall: ESCI 1012, ESCI 1017; CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006MATH 1003 or MATH 1053;PHYS 1061, PHYS 1091SCI 1001. 

Winter: ESCI 1001, ESCI 1006CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017;  MATH 1013 or MATH 1063PHYS 1062, PHYS 1092SCI 1002. 

2nd Year (20 ch + 17 ch) 

Fall: ESCI 2131 (Earth and Planetary Materials, 4 ch), ESCI 2211 (Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, 4 ch), ESCI 2602 (Principles of Geochemistry, 4 ch); BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006 (Biological Principles I, lecture and lab, 5 ch); one Arts elective (3 ch, see suggestions below). 

Winter: BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017 (Biological Principles II, lecture and lab, 5 ch); MATH 1503 or MATH 2213 (Introduction to Linear Algebra, 3 ch); PHYS 2902 (Environmental Physics (A), 3 ch); STAT 2264 (Statistics for Biology, 3 ch); ENVS 2003 (Introduction to Environmental Studies, 3 ch). 

3rd and 4th Year (Fa = Fall term, Wi = Winter term, Su = Summer term; should add to minimum of 69 ch for a Major) 

Core courses (45 ch)

-BIOL 2003, BIOL 2008 (Ecology lecture and lab, 6 ch, Fa); 
-CHEM 2121, CHEM 2136 (Analytical Chemistry I lecture and lab, 5 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 3631 (Geochemistry of Natural Waters (A), 4 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 3442 (Geohydrology, 4 ch, Wi); 
-ESCI 4452 (Environment Impact Assessment (A), 4 ch, Wi);

-SCI 4999 (Interconnections in Environmental Sciences, 3 ch, Final year); 
-Field Studies: ESCI 3713 (Geoenvironmental Field School (2 weeks) (A), 5 ch, after April exams); 
-Climate Change: ESCI 3292 (Climate and Environmental Change Through Time (A), 4 ch, Wi); 
-GIS: GGE 3423 (Introduction to GIS, 4 ch, Fa); 
-First Nations Studies: one of ABRG 3684 (Aspects of Maliseet and Mi'kmaq Culture, 3 ch, Wi); ENR 3000 (Indigenous Issues & Perspectives in Natural Resources Stewardship, 3 ch, Fa); 
-Ethics: one of PHIL 2201 (Introduction to Ethics, 3 ch, Fa); PHIL 2206 (Environmental Ethics, 3 ch, Wi); ANTH 4024 (Anthropology and Ethics (O), 3 ch); ENR 1001(Resource Management Issues, Ethics and Communication I, 4 ch, Fa). 

Other courses (23 ch): 

One pairing from the following (8 ch): 

-ESCI 2321 (Structural Geology 1, 4 ch, Wi) and ESCI 4401 (Applied Glacial Geology, 4 ch, Fa); 
-ESCI 2321 (Structural Geology 1, 4 ch, Wi) and ESCI 4512 (Geophysics 2, 4 ch, Fa) 
-ESCI 3271 (Paleontology, 4 ch, Fa) and ESCI 3282 (Introductory Oceanography and Paleoceanography (A), 4 ch, Wi); 
-Four stream courses from the list below (minimum 12 ch); 
-One, or two (if none taken in 2nd Year), Arts elective, e.g., ECON 1013 or ECON 1014 (Microeconomics, 3 ch, Fa or Wi), ECON 3755 (Environmental Economics, 3 ch, Fa), ECON 3766 (Economics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch), ANTH 3117 (Human Systems of Exchange: Nature and Culture, 3 ch), PHIL 3422 (Philosophy of Science, 3 ch), POLS 1803 (Politics of Climate Change (A), 3 ch, Fa). 

List of stream electives: 

ESCI 2142 Mineralogy and Petrology, 4 ch 
ESCI 2321 Structural Geology 1, 4 ch 
ESCI 2703 2nd Year Field School (2 weeks), 5 ch, after April exams 
ESCI 3271 Paleontology, 4 ch 
ESCI 3282 Introductory Oceanography and Paleoceanography (A), 4 ch 
ESCI 3482 Mineral Resources, Economics, and the Environment, 3 ch 
ESCI 3492 Petroleum Geoscience (A), 4 ch 
ESCI 4212 Sedimentary Environments, Landforms, and Sequences (A), 4 ch 
ESCI 4401 Applied Glacial Geology, 4 ch 
ESCI 4501 Applied Geophysics I, 4 ch 
ESCI 4512 Applied Geophysics II, 4 ch 
BIOL 2063 and BIOL 2068 Biological Diversity lecture and lab, 6 ch 
BIOL 3633 Biological Oceanography, 3 ch 
BIOL 4773 River and Lake Ecosystems (A), 3 ch 
BIOL 4973 Topics in Aquatic Ecology, 3 ch 
CHEM 2201 Inorganic Chemistry I, 3 ch
CHEM 2401 or CHEM 2421 Organic Chemistry I, 3 ch 
CHEM 2416 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I, 2 ch 
CHEM 3122 Analytical Chemistry II, 3 ch 
CHEM 3137 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory II, 2 ch 
ENR 2114 Water Sustainability: Practice and Technology (O), 3 ch 
ENR 2531 Introduction to Hydrometeorology Systems, 3 ch 
ENR 3201 Urban Hydrology and Water Management, 3 ch 

Honours program (150 ch) 

Same courses as for a Major program, plus ESCI 4900 (Thesis Project, 8 ch). Students must have (and maintain) a minimum CGPA of 3.0 to be accepted in and remain in the Honours program. In the second term of a student’s next-to-last year of undergraduate study, a student must approach a faculty supervisor to arrange a thesis topic and schedule. A written request for admission to the program then must be submitted to the Chair of Department prior to the last day to add classes in the Fall (Winter) term of the student’s final year. The Honours student must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.7 to obtain First Class Honours standing upon graduation. A student completing all course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Majors degree. 

GENERAL SCIENCE OPTION

This option presents students with the opportunity to get a broader science exposure by concentrating on two areas of science while taking many electives. While General Science does not give a major in any discipline, it will have to meet the minimum requirement equivalent to the minor programs in two of the selected science disciplines beyond first year. This degree has largely been used by students who planned to follow it with a second degree, e.g. in education, or a health profession.

First Year (38 ch)
The first year in General Science follows the regulations for First Year Science given in the Curriculum Section under “BACHELOR OF SCIENCE”, but students must include MATH 1003 or MATH 1053 and at least a term of lectures in each of Biology, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Physics and Economics or Psychology. Eight credit hours of coherent First year laboratory courses are chosen to meet future prerequisite requirements.

Second, Third and Fourth Years (96 ch minimum)
A student must choose two science disciplines from Biology, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Mathematics/Statistics, Physics and Economics or Psychology for areas of concentration. Courses chosen must be consistent with the requirement of the minor programs of the two selected disciplines above first year. The remainder of the 96 credit hours will be used for approved electives and courses required to meet the prerequisite for the core courses. The guidelines given below should be followed for choosing electives. Course selections must be pre-approved and reviewed annually by a General Science advisor.

Guideline for choosing electives:

  1. A minimum of 12 ch of courses must be chosen from those offered by the Faculty of Arts, 6 ch of which must have a substantial writing component as designated with a [W] in the calendar description. Courses in History of Science and ENGL 1103, ENGL 1144 are strongly recommended electives.
  2. Courses from disciplines outside of the selected concentrations that are used as prerequisites for the core courses are regarded as electives.
  3. Also acceptable as electives are additional science courses (except for those that cannot be taken for credit by Science students) and approved courses from other faculties.

DISTINCTION IN GENERAL SCIENCE
The BSc with Distinction in General Science will be awarded to students who attain a cumulative grade point average of 3.7 or greater in the General Science option.
NOTE: The General Science options on the Fredericton and Saint John campuses are different from each other. For regulations governing the General Science option offered on the Saint John campus, see the Saint John Academic Programs section of this Calendar.