BIOL4652Introductory Oceanography and Paleoceanography (A) (Cross-Listed: ESCI 4282)4 ch (3C 2L)
The oceans modulate the climate, are key regulators of biogeochemical cycles and support rich and diverse biological habitats. Designed to provide an overview of the role and functioning of the modern oceans. Also introduces students to the latest methods used in paleoceanography (i.e. the study of past oceanic conditions), a domain that has contributed considerably to our understanding of climate functioning and changes. A sample of the topics, related to the chemistry, physics and biology of the oceans that will be discussed includes: thermohaline circulation, dynamics of upwelling zones, tides, El Niño/La Niña and other climate oscillations, biogeochemical cycles, impact of human activities on the oceans (e.g. eutrophication, acidification), tracers and proxies in marine records (e.g. biological tracers and biomarkers, geochemical tracers, etc.). Credit may not be obtained for both ESCI 4282 and BIOL 4652. 

: One pairing of either ESCI 1001 and ESCI 1006/ESCI 1026/ESCI 1036, or ESCI 1012 and ESCI 1017; or BIOL 1001/BIOL 1009, BIOL 1006, BIOL 1012/BIOL 1019, BIOL 1017; (ESCI 2272 recommended).