A minimum grade of C is required for prerequisite courses.

Forestry program description.

NOTE: See the beginning of Section H for abbreviations, course numbers and coding.

FOR1001Introduction to Forestry4 ch (3C 3L)

This course provides students with an overview of field forestry skills through collection and analysis of basic stand-level inventory data. Emphasis is on developing basic mensuration and computation skills through a series of laboratory exercises and solving practical problems. Students learn how to quantify stand structure and to use basic quantitative information to make forestry decisions.

FOR1285Introduction to GIS3 ch
An online course, covering basic and advanced GIS functionality using ArcView 3.x across a range of forestry applications. Emphasizes forest inventory data and its use in characterizing timber and non-timber values of forests.
FOR2006Management of Natural Systems 4 ch (3C 3L)

Introduces management design issues and practices for a variety of natural systems so that students can effectively work across related disciplines. Objectives: (a) quantitatively design and evaluate strategies aimed at producing a desired set of outcomes for natural systems, including forests, wildlife populations, and hydrological networks; and b) communicate technical information clearly and succinctly in written format. 

Prerequisite: ENR 1001.

Co-requisite: ENR 2004 or permission of the instructor. 

FOR2113Introduction to Forest Wildlife Ecology3 ch (3C)

Emphasizes interdependence of forest organisms and the terrestrial and aquatic components of their environment, especially in the context of industrial forestry. Introduces an ecological approach to impacts of harvesting on forest ecosystems and the major groups of wildlife inhabiting forests, including species at risk. Covers identification and habitat requirements of selected wildlife species, and applicable legislation.

FOR2205Quantitative Methods (O)3 ch (2C 3L)
Applications in collection, organization, and analysis of basic forestry, biological and other environment-related data. Emphasis on the use of statistics as a problem-solving and decision-making tool through basic numerical and visual statistical techniques, iterative computer graphics, and programming.
FOR2281GIS with Applications in Forestry and Environmental Management3 ch (2L)

This course introduces students to core GIS terminology, tools and workflows using practical examples before proceeding to more advanced spatial analysis techniques. Material is presented in an online platform, with lab-based tutorial sessions and assumes no prior GIS knowledge.

FOR2286GIS in Forestry III2 ch

For students who wish to extend their GIS expertise with special analytical possibilities afforded by rasters using the latest ArcGIS software. This web-based course introduces the Spatial Analyst extension, and the ModelBuilder, highlighting applications in forestry involving reclassification, overlay, and distance and connectivity functions.

Prerequisite: FOR 2281.
FOR2345Meterology and Hydrology (A)4 ch (3C 3L)
Introduces basic aspects of meteorology, hydrometeorology, and hydrology at global, regional and local scales. Emphasis is given to soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions. Topics include energy balances, thermal, wind, and precipitation regimes, and phenomena associated with the hydrological cycle.
FOR2416Structure and Development of Woody Plants3 ch (2C 3L)

Development of woody-plant structure from embryo to maturity. Topics include morphogenesis and basic anatomy, development of crown architecture, interrelationships between crown and stem development, wood and elements of wood quality, mechanisms of asexual and sexual reproduction. For each topic, differences among major genera will be considered.

Prerequisite: FOR 2425

FOR2425Autecology of Forest Vegetation5 ch (3C 3L)

Recognition and identification of species, environmental requirements, and persistence mechanisms of various life-forms of forest vegetation; interpretation of silvical characteristics of tree species; analysis of stands of trees in relation to general site conditions and relative stage of development; and evaluation of interrelationships among components of forest vegetation over time, including likely responses to perturbation or to interventions of various kinds.

Prerequisite: A basic university course in Biology or Botany.

Co-requisite: FOR 2435.

FOR2432Forestry Inventory and Growth4 ch (3C 3L)

This course focuses on the design and analysis of forest-level inventories. Concepts of stratification and multistage sampling are presented. Approaches to modelling and predicting stand growth and inventory updates are explored. 

FOR2435Fundamentals of Forest Tree Physiology and Genetics 3 ch (2C 3L)
The course will deal with fundamentals of forest tree physiology and genetics, especially basic physiological processes and their genetic environmental control underlying growth, development, functioning, acclimation and adaptation of forest trees. The laboratory sessions will focus on reaffirming selected concepts and material taught in the class through practical experiments and demonstrations.
FOR2505Soils for Plant Growth 4 ch (2C 3L)

Students examine relationships between soils and plants, and related roles of water and nutrients. Factors that restrict root growth, and processes that influence soil development are revealed through field exercises and laboratory work. Effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on forest soils and subsequent plant responses are emphasized.

FOR2703Forest Operations3 ch (2C 3L)

This course introduces the major tree harvesting concepts in eastern Canada to students. Emphasis is on the felling, off road transport, and processing functions. A variety of machine types and functions are introduced and students explore the relationship between productivity and equipment costing and how these activities impact unit cost over time.

FOR2803Wood Technology3 ch (2C 3L)
Molecular, cell wall and anatomical structure of wood. Relative density, dimensional changes and moisture effects. Measuring industrial wood products (for example pulpwood, sawlogs, chips, pulp and lumber). Wood biodeterioration.
FOR2946Bioethics, Emotional Intelligence, and the Nature of Spirituality3 ch (3C)
This course is aimed at bringing together the three notions cited in the title with respect to actions taken and decisions made as life interacts among individuals and groups in today's world. Emphasis will be placed primarily on the disciplines of Forestry and Biology. The course will include: a) an introduction to principles and systems of ethics and what light these cast on human behavior; b) emotional intelligence and its usefulness in understanding basic human interactions; and c) spirituality in terms of a common element in human nature. With this background, consideration will then be given to dynamics of decision-making, individually as well as collectively, concepts and assumptions about the environment, the rights of nature, conflicting values about nature implicit in anthropocentrism and biocentrism, and the need for interdisciplinary dialoguing in the formulation of policy, laws, and regulations.
FOR3000Business Management and Human Factors in the Forestry and Environmental Sectors 3ch (3C)
This course provides students with basic skills and abilities needed to effectively manage the business and human aspects of environmental and forest management. Students will acquire basic abilities to budget and monitor projects, conduct financial analyses to evaluate management alternatives, evaluate financial statements, promote motivation, and facilitate effective communication and teamwork.
FOR3005Silviculture and Stand Intervention Design5 ch (3C 6L)

Takes a design-based approach to silviculture. Students develop stand intervention plans for the main stages of stand development integrating the biology of growing trees, engineering of conducting operations, and economics of costing operations.

FOR3006Forest Management 4 ch (3C 6L)

Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to design, evaluate, and explain management strategies for forest management problems of moderate complexity aimed at satisfying multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. Students will employ forest estate analytical software and will prepare professional technical reports summarizing their analysis and results.

Prerequisites: FOR 2006, FOR 3005, or permission of instructor. 

FOR3101Forest Economics3 ch (3C)

This course applies economic tools to help make informed forestry decisions that will most effectively meet private and social goals. 

Prerequisite: Some experience with regression analysis.

FOR3303Photo-interpretation, Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing in Forestry3 ch (3*L)

Provide interpretation of aerial photographs of forested areas for stand and site characterization. Remote sensing products other than aerial photographs, such as digital optical images, thermal infrared, and radar images will be introduced. Basics in digital image processing will be covered to address the conversion of remote sensing images to GIS layers. It is a self-paced, web-based course without scheduled lectures. UNB campus students do labs during scheduled sessions. Labs are self-paced and web-based for Open Access Learning Program students. Le cours est aussi disponible en français. NOTE: Students cannot receive credit for both FOR 3303 and FOR 3313

FOR3313Digital Image Process in Remote Sensing3 ch
To initiate students to the processing of digital images as acquired by Earth’s Observation Satellites like LANDSAT-TM, SPOT-HRV and NOAA-AVHRR. Course topics include characteristics of digital images, image displaying, pre-classification processing, image correction, image classification, and spatial image processing and analysis. The course is fully web-based. (The course does not deal with photo-interpretation.) Le cours est aussi disponible en français. Este curso también está disponible en español. NOTE: Students cannot receive credit for both FOR 3313 and FOR 3303.
FOR3425Forest Tree Genetics and Genomics (A)3 ch (3C)

Principles of variation and inheritance in forest trees will be introduced. Then, various genetics, genomics, biotechnology and breeding concepts and principles and their applications in tree biology, tree improvement, silviculture, conservation of genetic resources and sustainable forest management, will be discussed. The topics will include: basic principles of quantitative, molecular, population and conservation genetics; genetic variation, differentiation and evolution of populations; reproductive biology; ecophysiological genetics of adaptation; tree improvement concepts, methods and programs; silvicultural practices and genetic resource conservation; discovery and functional analysis of genes; organization and mapping of genomes; marker-assisted selection and molecular breeding; and genetic engineering of forest trees.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2053 or permission of instructor.

FOR3445Ecology of Populations and Communities4 ch (3C 3L)

To understand and link processes acting on individuals, populations, and communities in space and time. To predict the response of individuals, populations, and communities to disturbance and to understand the implications of such responses for management of populations, communities, and ecosystems. 

Prerequisites: FOR2113, or permission of the instructor.

FOR3456Forest Watershed and Forest Fire Management3 ch (2C 3L)

Emphasizes the principles of management of watersheds and fire at the stand and landscape level. Influences of climate, topography/terrain, and stand and fuel types are covered. Concepts of watershed conservation are introduced as well as principles and models dealing with water retention and flow, and carbon and nutrient cycling in primary forest watersheds. Fire management concepts deal with the Fire Weather Index system, the Fire Behaviour Prediction system, fire ecology, and fire management strategies, tactics and operations.

Prerequisite: FOR 3445 or permission of instructor. 

FOR3885Non-Timber Forest Products3 ch (3C)

Provides an overview of the diversity of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in Canada and North America. Introduces major classes of NTFPs including medicinal plants; maple and birch products; mushrooms, fiddleheads and other edible plants; and essential oils. Introduces the science behind the production and commercial use of selected NTFP examples. Discusses issues of stewardship, sustainability and certification of non-timber forest products, emphasizing management of forest lands for multiple products and values.

FOR4013Basic Woodlot Management (O)3 ch (3C)

Introduction to basic woodlot management, covering such topics as planning, harvesting, silviculture, Christmas trees, maple products, wildlife and recreation, economics, owner characteristics and organization, government programs and policies and industry relations as they relate to small woodlots.

Prerequisites: Open to 4th- and 5th-year Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management students, or permission of instructor.

FOR4020Management Practicum8 ch (1C 3L)

Practical exercise in forest landscape management, designed to provide an opportunity to integrate skills and knowledge gained throughout the program. Working with a client and/or the public, students will develop goals and objectives, design and gather inventory data (if required), then develop an integrated landscape management plan at the strategic, tactical and operational levels. Learning modules will be provided specific to the needs of the project. Additional topics include project management, conflict resolution, professional practice and forestry associations. The project requires completion of a group report and presentation. 

Prerequisites: FOR 2281, FOR 3005, FOR 3006, FOR 3456

Co-requisite: FOR 4096

FOR4096Forest Landscape Design and Management 4 ch (3C 3L)

Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to design and evaluate strategic forest management strategies aimed at meeting a variety of environmental, social, and economic forest values. Strategy design will require students to combine skill in use of state-of-the-art forest estate planning systems with an understanding of natural disturbance dynamics, forest certification, and forest land zoning concepts. The course builds on student abilities acquired in pre-requisite courses FOR 2006 and FOR 3006.

Prerequisites: FOR 2006 and FOR 3006, or permission of instructor. 

FOR4206Forest Biometry II (A)3 ch (2C 2L)

Additional topics in data collection and analysis, including multiple linear regression, analysis of covariance, basic principles of experimental design, analysis of factorial arrangements of treatments, analysis for some special-purpose designs.

Prerequisite: STAT 2253, or permission of instructor.

FOR4303Optical, Thermal Infrared and Radar Remote Sensing3 ch (3C/L)

An introduction to remote sensing methodologies for observing the Earth's surface from different vantage points (from the ground, from airplanes, and from space). The course is fully web-based. It allows for a quantitative understanding of optical, thermal infrared, and radar images as acquired by Earth’s observation satellites like LANDSAT-TM, SPOT-HRV, NOAA-AVHRR and RADARSAT. Remote sensing applications are taken from the fields of forestry, agriculture, geology, oceanography, hydrology, and environmental studies. It does not deal with photo-interpretation. The course is recommended for students intending to do a forestry senior thesis in remote sensing. Le cours est aussi disponible en français.

FOR4304Image Processing Methods for Radarsat-2 and Polarimetric Images3 ch

Introduction to image processing methods for RADARSAT-2 images (with a particular reference to polarimetric images). The course is fully web-based. It allows the quantitative understanding of the nature of radar images and polarimetric images and how they can be processed to extract relevant information. It includes applications in forestry, agriculture, geology, oceanography, hydrology, and environmental studies. Le cours est aussi disponible en français. 

FOR4412Forest Nursery Practices (A)3 ch

Students become familiar with the full range of topics related to seedling production for forestry. Students learn greenhouse techniques by growing seedlings from seed. 

FOR4425Conservation Genetics (A)3 ch (3C)

This class will examine the application of genetic principles, concepts and biotechnologies in conservation, sustainable management and restoration of natural and managed resources. The topics will include: concepts of genetic resources, genetic biodiversity and other population genetic parameters, demography, conservation, sustainable management, ecological restoration, and minimum viable population size; indicators for population viability; exploration, evaluation, utilization, and conservation of genetic resources; genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation, resource management practices, domestication, climate change, and natural disturbance; and challenges, opportunities and strategies for conservation and sustainable management of genetic resources.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2053 or BIOL 2143 or permission of instructor. 

FOR4437Methods in Tree Physiology Research (A)3 ch (6L)

Introduction to experimental physiology. Hands-on training in use of equipment including uv/vis spectrophotometry, tissue culture and general procedures.

Prerequisite for students intending to do FOR 4992/5991 in physiology.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017, FOR 2420, FOR 2435 , or permission of instructor.

FOR4438Biochemistry of Trees (A)3 ch (2C 3L)

Introduction to metabolic pathways of economic or ecological significance, including biosynthesis of pectin, hemicelluloses, starch, callose, cellulose, lipids, terpenoids, flavanoids, pigments, and lignin.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017, FOR 2420, FOR 2435, or permission of instructor. 

FOR4452Ecological Modelling (O)4 ch (2C 3L)

A workshop course in the modelling of ecological systems. Each student builds a model.

Prerequisites: Concepts of forest ecology or equivalent; some knowledge of computer programming, or permission of instructor.

FOR4466Advanced Studies in Forest Plants and Their Environment4 ch (3C 3L)

The course addresses ecophysiological relationships within forest stands (energy capture, respiration, photosynthate allocation, transportation, etc.) integrated to the stand level. Specialized topics include tree nutrition (nutrient deficiencies, diagnosis, meditative action), ecotoxicology (role of heavy metals) and reactions of trees to air pollutants (S02, oxone) and climate change.

FOR4506Advanced Studies in Forest Soils and Hydrology4 ch (3C 3L)

Advanced studies addressing impacts of forest management of forest soils and streams. Topics include sustainability of soil quality, site preparation effects on soil moisture, nutrient supply, soil temperature, water balance, snowmelt, water quality, role of riparian buffer zones.

FOR4545Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management 4 ch (3C 3L)

To learn concepts and measurements about biophysical landscape dynamics, strategies for the maintenance of biodiversity, and ecosystem based forest management. To use contemporary examples of management of ecosystems. 

Prerequisite: Prior ecology course.

FOR4576Forest Hydrology and Aquatic Habitat3 ch (3C 3L)

This course helps students to develop analytical skills for solving hydrological problems under varying hydro thermal conditions pertaining to best forest management practices and operations. Topics include hydrometric data generation, hydrograph analyses, and the modelling of peak flow of extreme events. The course also introduces tools to assess land-use impacts on slopes, soils, streams and lakes, to protect water quality and aquatic habitats.

FOR4586Fire Management (A)3 ch (2C 2L)
Topics covered include fuels and fire behavior, fire danger rating, prevention, prediction, detection, suppression, and overall planning and fire management systems.
FOR4602Ecology of Forest Insects (A)3 ch (2C 3L)

Evaluates factors influencing insects in forest communities with emphasis on predator-prey, parasitoid-host and insect-plant interactions as well as natural selection, physiological constraints, behaviour and population dynamics.

FOR4615Insect Management 3 ch (2C 3L)

Taxonomy, importance and ecology of major insect families; damage assessments, insect population dynamics and control strategies and tactics.

FOR4625Integrated Management of Insects and Fungi4 ch (3C 3L)

Presents a common approach to management of insects and fungi and their interactions at the stand/population and landscape levels. Major components to be discussed are: monitoring and prediction of hazard and risk; damage prediction based on organism population dynamics; management strategies and tactics including acquisition and deployment of resources, control methods and cost benefit analyses. Taxonomy of major families of insects and diseases will be covered in laboratory sessions.

Prerequisites: FOR 3445, FOR 3455, and FOR 3006, or permission of instructor. 

FOR4655Wildlife Investigational Techniques (A)3 ch (3C/L)

Designed to introduce techniques available for conducting investigations in support of management objectives. Labs will provide hands-on experience from radio telemetry to necropsy techniques.

Prerequisite: Substantial completion of Year 3, BScF, or permission of instructor.

FOR4721Urban Land Use Policy, Planning and Processes3 ch (3C)
Examines the administrative, political, and decision-making strucutre of urban communities. Considers how these factors affect the allocation of land and resources among the built and natural environments. Examines the processes used to enhance urban green spaces and forest landscapes.
FOR4723Ornithology5 ch (3C 3) W

Studies birds; natural selection, morphological adaptations, migration, behaviour, and reproduction, in an ecological way.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2093, or BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068, or permission of the instructor. This course is cross-listed as BIOL 4723. Credit may not be obtained for both FOR 4723 and BIOL 4723.

FOR4785Urban Forest Conservation and Management 4 ch (3C 3L)
Examines the planning and management of trees and forests associated with urban areas with a focus on protection and enhancement.   Includes tree/forest resource inventories, techniques to determine the values of urban residents concerning trees and forests, assessment of the benefits and procedures for urban watershed protection, and techniques to maintain or increase the health of trees and forests in urban green spaces.
FOR4881Kiln Drying and Preserving Wood3 ch (3C/L)

Kiln drying theory and practice. Experience operating a dry kiln. Preservative treatment and sap stain control processes and chemicals. Properties of treated wood.

FOR4910Directed Studies in Forestry6 ch

With approval of the Faculty, a student may carry on directed studies of specific problems or areas in forestry.

FOR4911Directed Studies in Forestry4 ch

With approval of the Faculty, a student may carry on directed studies of specific problems or areas in forestry. 

FOR4912Directed Studies in Forestry3-5 ch

With approval of the Faculty, a student may carry on directed studies of specific problems or areas in forestry. Number of credit hours will be determined by the Faculty and based on the nature, duration, and complexity of the undertaking.

FOR4973Forestry Field Camp II 2 ch (6D)

An intensive 6-day series of field exercises, starting before the Fall Term, involving low student/faculty ratios, and designed to improve integrative and quantitative-forecasting skills. Evening sessions provide overviews of the scope of forest-ecosystem management generally, and in relation to the specific field-camp situation. Students are charged for food and lodging and part of travel costs.

Prerequisite: Substantial completion of Years 1-3 core.

FOR4991Honours Research Project6 ch [W]

Forestry honours students must complete a research project that is approved by the Faculty and supervised by a Faculty member. This course involves submitting a detailed project report and an oral defense in a seminar-style presentation. Students should consult with a faculty advisor prior to the end of third year to discuss project requirements and potential topics. NOTE: Minimum CGPA for acceptance is 3.0 


A technical description and analysis of a study, employment project, or literature review developed under the guidance of a faculty member. Available only to students in their fourth year or by permission of the instructor. 

FOR5281Introduction to GIS for Forestry & Environmental Management3 ch

The course introduces GIS via the industry-standard ArcGIS suite and emphasizes learning GIS through applied environmental management scenarios; specifically, applications in land base inventory and mapping using data for the UNB Woodlot.
The introductory module provides basic GIS concepts and ArcGIS using generalize examples. The second (primary) learning module consists of two lessons; Environmental Asset Inventory and Environmental Asset Mapping. The Environmental Asset Inventory lesson introduces ArcGIS application in inventory, including creating and using geodatabases to store forest inventory, road & stream data and other managed assets. Students are exposed to the array of digital data typically found in forest inventories and transportation networks and how they are stored, accessed, displayed, and manipulated using GIS. The Environmental Asset Mapping lesson introduces the power of ArcGIS in composing maps commonly used in environmental management, including map layers, thematic maps, and application maps. The two lessons also expose you to basic geoprocessing techniques, data editing and updating and map overlay.

FOR5282Advanced GIS for Forestry & Environmental Management3 ch

The course teaches advanced GIS via the industry-standard ArcGIS suite and emphasizes learning GIS through applied environmental management scenarios; specifically, applications in land base inventory and mapping using data for the UNB Woodlot.
The introductory module provides an accelerated refresher on core assumed GIS knowledge. The second (primary) learning module consists of three lessons; Forest Inventory Analysis, Landscape Analysis, and Non-Timber Forest Values. The lessons are not presented as an exhaustive treatment of their topics, but simply ones that present some obvious applications in forestry, in logical groupings. Forest Inventory Analysis introduces forest reclassifying and characterizing concepts and broadly applicable geoprocessing methods. Landscape Analysis and Non-Timber Forest Values, on the other hand, are theme-based lessons that employ the array of spatial analysis techniques introduced in Forest Inventory Analysis

Prerequisite: FOR 2281 or FOR 5281 or permission of the instructor.
FOR5284 LiDAR for Forestry and Environmental Management 3 ch

This course provides an introduction to LiDAR technology, including sensor types, platforms and acquisition parameters before springing in to the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data for environmental management and planning. Students will use ArcGIS and LAStools software to explore 3D point cloud data and generate useful derivative surfaces and analysis workflows including point cloud measurement & reclassification, DEM and DSM creation, point cloud stratification for landscape modelling and habitat suitability, trail planning, flooding potential, etc.

Prerequisite: FOR 2281 or FOR 5281 or permission of the instructor.
FOR5920Forestry in Atlantic Canada (A) 2ch (3C)

This course is designed for students new to Atlantic Canada. The course provides an overview of forest history, plant distribution, forest utilization, forest conservation, and current forest management issues in Atlantic Canada. Guest lectures, small group discussions, and field tours will be used.

Prerequisite: This course is reserved for 3+1+1 forestry students, or by permission of instructor.
FOR5983International Forest Studies3 ch

This course focuses on the biophysical, historical, social and economic factors influencing forest management in a region outside of Canada. The purpose of the course is to better understand forest management practices within the Canadian context by gaining an understanding of how these factors influence forest management in a region outside of Canada. A 10 to 14-day field trip to the region is required. Prominent forestry professionals from across Canada will join with the students. Each year a new region is selected. Students will be charged for travel costs associated with this course. Limited enrolment.