NOTE: See the beginning of Section H for abbreviations, course numbers and coding.

ANTH1001Introduction to Socio-Cultural Anthropology3 ch (3C)

What makes us different from each other? What makes us similar? Exploring and comparing practices of kinship, politics, economics and religion in societies from around the world give us powerful insights into the unique human capacity to create cultures, and into the ways in which culture is fundamental and essential to our shared human experience. 

ANTH1002Introduction to Archaeology and Biological Anthropology3 ch (3C)

This course considers long-term human biological and cultural change. The course introduces biological anthropology via the study evolutionary processes, the human evolutionary tree, and human diversity. This course then considers questions surrounding the evolution of culture and language. To introduce archaeology, the course presents processes of cultural change and major archaeological discoveries from paleolithic, mesolithic, pre-contact and historical cultures. Throughout, emphasis is placed on how archaeological and palaeoanthropological sites are formed and studied. The course includes a variety of laboratory exercises. Students who receive credit for ANTH 1303/ARCH 1303 cannot receive credit for ANTH 1002.

ANTH2101Foundations of Socio-Cultural Anthropology3 ch (3C) [W]
Using ethnographic research and cross-cultural comparison, socio-cultural anthropologists attempt to understand the lived experience of people. Case studies drawn from classical and contemporary ethnographic accounts are used to develop a foundation in socio-cultural anthropology with a comparative approach to human social organization through a focus on kinship and political systems.  
ANTH2303Exploring the World of Archaeology3 ch (3C) [W]

This course addresses central dynamic tensions in Archaeology and their impact on archaeological practice, including culture history versus cultural process; materialist versus idealist approaches to the past; processual versus post-processual archaeologies; archaeology as a study of the archaeological record versus archaeology of as a study of past human cultures; academic archaeology versus cultural resource management; archaeology and Aboriginal peoples. Students who receive credit for ARCH 2303 cannot receive credit for ANTH 2303.

Prerequisite: ANTH 1002 (or equivalent) or permission of the instructor.
ANTH2304Great Discoveries in World Archaeology3 ch
This introduction to world archaeology is intended for all students interested in the origins of humans and in early civilizations. An approximately chronological scheme is used, beginning with our origin as a species and leading up to the development of agriculture, writing, and the emergence of complex societies and civilizations, in the Old World and the New World.
ANTH2504Introduction to Medical Anthropology3 ch (3C) [W]
This course is designed to introduce students to the discipline of medical anthropology, which is accomplished by focusing on the ways in which illness, health, and healing are embedded within social, political, and cultural systems. Selected case studies are used to examine i) how different medical systems define health and illness, and how they treat categories of disease? ii) What happens when western medicine confronts folk understandings of illness in such a way that the two clash? iii) How anthropologists investigate and respond to the study of pain, illness, suffering, and healing in specific contexts? iv) How do seemingly local and global cultural processes shape aspects of our bodies, such as illness, sex, and death? This course also explores biomedicine as a powerful cultural belief system that is global in its scope, creates disease categories, and produces authoritative knowledge. Finally, medical pluralism and pertinent case studies are examined to understand the integration of western and traditional medical systems.
ANTH2505Biological Anthropology3 ch (3C) [W]

Biological anthropologists attempt to reconstruct the lives of people using human remains from both forensic and archaeological contexts. In this course, students are introduced to the application of biological anthropology to past human populations through analysis of their biological remains (bones, teeth and preserved soft tissues). Topics include: determining and understanding population demographics (age, sex, ancestry, and stature), health and disease, chemical and genetic analysis, and quantitative methods and population studies.

Prerequisite: ANTH 1002 (or equivalent) or permission of the instructor.
ANTH2801Food and Culture (Cross-Listed: SOCI 2801)3 ch
Introduces theories and methods of the growing field of food studies. Few things are more important to human beings than food. Food is profoundly cultural, which makes it a topic of interest to social scientists concerned with the comparative study of culture and society across time and space. On the one hand, what is considered edible, what is seen as good to eat, and how it all embeds in changing ways of life all varies depending on cultural, social, economic, and political contexts. On the other hand, thinking about nutrition, energy, diet and what is left behind opens a valuable window on societies past and present. The course goal is a practical guide to the study of food, its core ideas, and its methodoligies with the goal of bringing order and insight to diverse relationships between people and what they eat. NOTE: Credit can only be obtained for one of ANTH 2801 and SOCI 2801.
ANTH3014Issues in Anthropological Theory (O)3 ch (3C) [W]

Examines landmark theories and enduring debates in order to encourage students to evaluate anthropological theories and to think more critically about the nature of theory in the social sciences.

Prerequisite: Any 2000-level anthropology course or permission of the instructor. 

ANTH3051Work-Study in Anthropology (O)3 ch (3L)

This course allows students to receive university credit for experience in social science research gained under the supervision of a university-seated researcher or from a non-university organization.

Registration: Students may only register after making arrangements for supervision and grading with the department.

ANTH3052Anthropological Statistics and Methods3 ch (2L 1S) [W]

This course addresses quantitative anthropological research design and statistical analysis. The course guides students through the process of anthropological research: formulating a research question, choosing a methodology, collecting and analysing data, and producing a project report. Students can incorporate archaeology, social anthropology and medical anthropology, research interests into their research projects. 

Prerequisite: Any 2000-level anthropology course or permission of the instructor. 

ANTH3114Gender, Sex and Culture3 ch (3C) [W]

How do human gender roles vary from culture to culture and over time? How has anthropology attempted to explain these variations? What are the implications for the nature/nurture debate? Examples are drawn from archaeology, biological anthropology, and socio cultural studies.

Prerequisite: Any 2000-level anthropology course, or permission of the instructor.

ANTH3116Symbolism and Ritual3 ch (3C) [W]
Examines a wide range of belief systems in order to introduce students to the study of religions from an anthropological perspective. 

Any introductory anthropology course or permission of the instructor.
Note: Students cannot obtain credit for both ANTH 2174 and ANTH 3116.
ANTH3117Human Systems of Exchange: Nature and Culture3 ch (3C) [W]
Compares and critically evaluates different approaches to human systems of exchange through a focus on economic anthropology. Covers diverse contemporary and classical topics in the field through a selection of different theoretical approaches to examine foragers, horticulturalists, pastoralists, peasants, and state societies and investigate their systems of exchange with each other and their relationships with the environment. 

Any introductory anthropology course or permission of the instructor.
Note: Students cannot obtain credit for both ANTH 2114 and ANTH 3117.
ANTH3301The Prehistory of North America (A)3 ch (3C) (LE) [W]

This course surveys of the cultural history of North America through an in-depth examination of the origins and development of the Native cultures of North America, from the earliest traces to European contact. 

Prerequisite: ANTH 2303 or permission of the instructor. 

ANTH3303The Archaeological Traditions of North America (A)3 ch (3C) (LE) [W]

This course presents a detailed examination of the historical, theoretical and methodological development of Americanist archaeology.

Prerequisite: ANTH 2303 or permission of the instructor 

ANTH3341Work-Study in Museum Studies and Material Culture Analysis (O)3 ch (3L)

Allows students to receive university credit for experience gained in museum studies, collections management and/or material culture analysis gained outside the university setting. 

Prerequisite: 3 ch of Archaeology.

Registration: Students may register only after making arrangements for supervision and grading with the department.
ANTH3342Archaeological Lab School I (O)3 ch (3S) (LE) [W]

The lab school offers an introduction to archaeological analytical techniques through participation in a lab-based research project. This section emphasizes systematic approaches to research, recognition and cataloguing of archaeological materials, and basic data recovery. 

Prerequisite: 3 ch of 3000-level archaeology and permission of the instructor. 

Offered concurrently with ANTH 3343.
ANTH3343Archaeological Lab School II (O)3 ch (3L) (LE) [W]

The lab school offers an introduction to archaeological analytical techniques through participation in a lab-based research project. This section emphasizes quantitative methods, data manipulation and presentation, and technical analysis.

Prerequisite: 3 ch of 3000-level archaeology and permission of the instructor. 

Offered concurrently with ANTH 3342.
ANTH3344Ancient Technology (O)3 ch (3L) (LE)

This course explores ancient technologies from the view of experimental archaeology and replication of specific tools. Various materials, such as stone, clay, metal and cloth are examined, and particular tool classes, such as weapons, containers, and transport vessels are considered. 

ANTH3345Acquiring an Archaeological Perspective (O) 3 ch (3S) (LE) [W]

This seminar examines the domain and nature of archaeological inquiry, and the relationships among archaeology and other disciplines in the social, physical and natural sciences.

Prerequisite: 3 ch of third-level archaeology and permission of the instructor.

ANTH3346Public Archaeology (A)3 ch (3S) (LE)

This course offers an introduction to public and community-based archaeology and provides an overview of archaeology as public outreach. Topics include public engagement and education, the role of museums, universities, and field projects, and the ethical issues around public education focused on excavation. Students participate in the development and implementation of a public archaeology project, including creating a display or showcase on archaeological practices. The course also involves interacting with the public, with other students, and with the university community, and involves mentoring and teaching others about archaeological practice.

Prerequisites: ANTH 1002 (or equivalent), ANTH 2303, or permission of instructor.

ANTH3351Work-Study in Archaeological Field Research (O)3 ch (3L)

Allows students to receive university credit for experience gained in archaeological field research outside the university setting.

Prerequisite: 3 ch of archaeology.

Registration: Students may register only after making arrangements for supervision and grading with the department.
ANTH3352Archaeological Field School (O)3 ch (3S) (LE) [W]

The field school offers an introduction to archaeological field techniques through participation in a field research project. This section emphasizes safety in the field, systematic approaches to research, site survey, recording, testing and excavation techniques.

Prerequisites: 3 ch of 3000-level archaeology and permission of the instructor. 

Offered concurrently with ANTH 3353.
ANTH3353Archaeological Field School II (O) 3 ch (3L) (LE)

The field school offers an introduction to archaeological field techniques through participation in a field research project. This section emphasizes recognition and recovery of archaeological materials, recording of basic field procedures and recovery of materials for technical analyses.

Prerequisites: 3 ch of 3000-level archaeology and permission of the instructor. 

Offered concurrently with ANTH 3352.
ANTH3364Archaeology of Northeastern North America3 ch (Online) (LE)
This course considers the archaeology of New England and Atlantic Canada from the region's first peopling to the period of early European contact. This course is divided into eleven short modules designed as building blocks of regional prehistory. Each module will have its core a series of short readings and lectures. Topics covered might include:Contemporary First Nations Communities in the Northeast, Environmental context, The Palaeoindian period and the peopling of Northeast, Early and Middle Archaic, Late Archaic, Terminal Archaic and Early Woodland, Palaeoeskimos in Newfoundland, Middle Maritime Woodland and Ancestral Beothuk, Late Maritime Woodland, European contact, and the Historical archaeology in the Northeast.
ANTH3365Intro to Archeological GIS3 ch (online only)

Introduces the use of Geographic Information Systems with a special focus of the use of GIS in social sciences. Students learn how to create and analyze archaeological spatial data and become familiar with the use of Esri’s ArcGIS spatial software suite.

Prerequisites: ANTH1002 (or equivalent or permission of the instructor).
ANTH3502Medical Anthropology and Public Health3 ch (3C) [W]

Medical anthropology is playing an increasingly important role in public health. This course builds on basic concepts introduced in ANTH 2504 with an emphasis on the contributions of medical anthropological theories and concepts towards an understanding of complex health-related behaviour. This course examines why public health policies and interventions are more likely to be effective if the beliefs and behaviour of people are understood and taken into account. Some examples of particular health problems are examined, such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, malaria and other communicable and non-communicable diseases to show how an anthropological approach can contribute to both a better understanding of health and illness and to more culturally appropriate public health measures. 

Prerequisite: ANTH 2504 or permission of the instructor.
ANTH3521Exploring the World of Primates (O)3 ch (2C 1L) [W]

In this course students are introduced to the major primate taxa (i.e. prosimians, New World monkeys, Old World Monkeys, and apes) to illustrate the great variety in the anatomy, physiology, behaviour, and ecology within the Primate Order. The biological and social adaptations of primates are explored as well as basic evolutionary concepts, current trends and theories in primatology. The following topics are addressed: evolutionary history, taxonomic classification, diet, predation, communication, social systems, kin selection, reproductive strategies, cognition, and conservation.

Prerequisite: ANTH 1002 or permission of the instructor.

ANTH3522Human Variation and Adaptation3 ch (2C 1L) [W]

This course explores our biocultural evolution. It introduces students to human biological diversity, our similarities and differences and why these exist. How did humans in different parts of the world adapt and survive in their specific environments? What selective pressures were exerted on population genetics to produce modern variations? Topics include human adaptations: micro- and macro-evolution, skin pigmentation, growth and development,  demography, aging and senescence, genetic variations, disease prevention and susceptibility.

 Prerequisite: ANTH 2505 or permission of the instructor.

ANTH3523Forensic Anthropology3 ch (1.5C 1.5L) [W]

This course introduces the field of forensic anthropology, which involves the application of biological anthropology methods to a medico-legal context. To identify human remains, forensic anthropologists assist law enforcement by determining age, sex, ancestry, stature, and unique features from skeletal remains. Using decomposition rates, they can provide an estimate of the postmortem interval. Course topics include: establishing a forensic context, methods of scene recovery, estimating the postmortem interval, reconstruction of demographic information, and identification of bone pathology and trauma.

ANTH3524Paleopathology3 ch (2S 1L) [W]

This course focuses on the study of ancient human diseases and their origins through examination of their remains in the archaeological record. Only a few diseases leave their marks on bone and tooth enamel, the most common remnants of ancient populations. Students are taught how to identify these abnormalities and assess their potential implications for the health of a living person/population, and to interpret the bioarchaeological evidence to gain insight into the health of past populations.

Prerequisite: ANTH 3525 or permission of the instructor.

ANTH3525Human Osteology3 ch (1C 2L)

Human skeletal anatomy and biology are fundamental to the study of forensics and biological anthropology. This course emphasizes a hands-on learning process for the identification of individual bones, and their morphological features, siding, and anatomical orientation. Relevant techniques for the reconstruction of past populations and the assessment of human biological variation are introduced (age at death, sex, growth and development).

ANTH3526Anthropology of Death3 ch
What is death? All living things experience death, but humans are unique as we purposefully bury our dead, often with ceremony or ritual. Why is there so much variation when it comes to the dead and how they are treated, celebrated, or feared? An anthropological perspective is used to explore these questions, to understand specifically how we define death biologically and culturally and how this definition can and does change over time. 

Prerequisite: Any 1000-level Anthropology course or permission of the instructor.
ANTH3552Bioarchaeology Field School3ch [W]

This field program, with ANTH 3553, offers an introduction to mortuary archaeology and bioarchaeological field methods through skeletal excavation. This section of the course emphasizes ethics when handling human remains, safety in the field, bioarchaeological recording, and data collection methods and skeletal excavation techniques.

Prerequisite: ANTH 3525 (or equivalent) and permission of the instructor.

ANTH3662Canada's First Nations (A)3 ch (3C) [W]

Explores the distinctiveness of Canada’s Aboriginal peoples through their varied societies and cultures and how these have withstood centuries of colonial impact to confront the many shared challenges of living in contemporary Canadian society.

ANTH3694Latin America and the Caribbean3 ch (3C) [W]

Relates specific ethnographic studies of Latin American and Caribbean societies to the analysis of colonialism, imperialism and underdevelopment.

ANTH3704South Asia3 ch (3C) [W]

Introduces basic concepts for the analysis of South Asian society, including class, caste, ethnic groups, local and national state and economic relations, in a historical context of colonialism and underdevelopment. Debates surrounding these issues are addressed.

ANTH3801Food Studies (Cross-Listed: SOCI 3801)3 ch
This course provides students with a general understanding of the role of food in contemporary societies by exploring the socio-cultural aspects of food production and consumption in a cross-cultural context. It also analyzes the economic and political landscape of farming in an international context by examining food politics concerning regulatory measures in food labelling and safety, genetically modified food, organic and sustainable agriculture, and the future of the world food system. NOTE: Credit can be obtained for only one of ANTH 3801 or SOCI 3801.
ANTH4024Anthropology and Ethics (O)3 ch (3S) [W]

The ethical codes of many national anthropological associations recommend that teachers impress upon students the ethical challenges involved in every phase of anthropological work, as well as encouraging them to reflect upon available ethical codes. They also encourage dialogue with colleagues on ethical issues. This seminar provides a forum for extended discussions of complex ethical challenges that face anthropologists in their professional work.

 Prerequisite: Any introductory anthropology course or permission of the instructor.

ANTH4025Hunters and Gatherers (A)3 ch (3S) (LE) [W]
Although relatively few hunter-gatherers exist today, hunting and gathering was the sole lifeway worldwide for the vast majority of human history. This course will consider hunter-gatherer groups from an anthropological and archaeological perspective. Topics to be covered include portrayals of hunter-gatherers, the validity of hunter-gatherer as an anthropological category, variation in foraging strategies, cosmology, architecture, gender, and band-level political organization.

Any 1000-level Anthropology course or permission of the instructor. Students who receive credit for ANTH 4307 cannot receive credit for ANTH 4025.
ANTH4090 to 4099Selected Topics in Anthropology (O)3 ch (3S) [W]
These courses offer an in-depth analysis of a particular topic, selected by the instructor, from one (or more) of a socio-cultural, archaeological, biological, or medical anthropology perspective.

Any 2000-level Anthropology course or permission of the instructor.
ANTH4101 Contemporary Debates in Socio-Cultural Anthropology (O) 3 ch (3S) [W]
Examines contemporary cutting-edge perspectives and debates in socio-cultural anthropology, chosen by the instructor.

Any 2000 or 3000-level Anthropology course or permission of the instructor.
ANTH4114Culture and Environment3 ch (3S) [W]

Examines how culture mediates the relationship between humans and their environment, including traditional ecological knowledge and/or local knowledge systems. 

Prerequisite: ANTH 3117 or permission of the instructor.

ANTH4204Gender, Kinship, and Marriage (O)3 ch (3S) [W]

Examines the wide diversity of gender roles, kinship forms and marital arrangements in human cultures of all scales. 

Prerequisite: ANTH 3114 or permission of the instructor. 

ANTH4224Religion in Practice (A)3 ch [W]

Explains the cultural and social roots of religious beliefs as well as the diversity of religious understandings and practices throughout the world.

Prerequisite: ANTH 3116 or permission of the instructor. 

ANTH4244Ethnopolitics and Identity (O)3 ch 3S [W]

Identity is often as much as about politics as it is about cultural heritage. Current and classic examples of the politicization of cultural heritage and ethnic identity are explored in light of political action.

Prerequisite: ANTH 2101 or permission of the instructor.
ANTH4302Historical Archaeology of the Maritimes3 ch
Historical archaeology is the archaeological study of people who are accounted for in written records. The frameworks of Historical Archaeology are used to explore the archaeological record of the Maritime Provinces, from about AD 1500 to 1900.
ANTH4304Archaeology of Atlantic Canada (A)3 ch (3S) (LE) [W]

In this seminar, students examine the 11,000 years of prehistory in the Atlantic region, emphasizing changes in material culture, ecological adaptations, and social interaction.

Prerequisite: ANTH 3303 or permission of the instructor. 

ANTH4308Consulting Archaeology3 ch (3S) (LE) [W]

These courses provide an in-depth examination of an archaeological topic selected by the instructor. Examples of topics that may be selected include: geoarchaeology, prehistoric human ecology, hunter-gatherer studies, consulting archaeology, or diet and subsistence. 

 Prerequisite: ANTH 3303 or permission of the instructor.

ANTH4313Archaeology, Heritage, and the Public(s) (O)3 ch [W]
How do communities and various publics produce, interact with, construct, and contest knowledge about the past? Perspectives from archaeology and critical studies of heritage are used examine processes of knowledge creation, dissemination, mobilization, and transfer in archaeology, as well as the role of research modes in knowledge production (including applied research, conventional problem-oriented research, community-engaged research, and collaborative research). Topics will include discussion of critical heritage studies, citizen science, indigenous archaeology, post-normal science, and applied research such as cultural resource management. 

Prerequisite: Any 1000-level Anthropology course or permission of the instructor.
ANTH4502Issues in Medical Anthropology (A)3 ch (3S) [W]

A course designed to evaluate the application of medical anthropology in understanding and improving human health problems. A selection of case studies reflecting the various dimensions of medical anthropology in different cultural contexts are considered. The course begins with an introduction to the research methods used in medical anthropology. The important theoretical constructs that have influenced the field of medical anthropology and their application in research problems are examined.

Prerequisite: ANTH 2504 or permission of the instructor.

ANTH4522Human Evolution (O)3 ch (3L) [W]

Examines the genetic basis of human evolution. With the advent of modern genetic technologies, it has been possible to compare and contrast evolutionary relationships at the genetic level. One current debate in biological anthropology surrounds the origin of anatomically modern Homo sapiens based on DNA evidence. Fossil evidence along with the genetic picture are considered in detail.

Prerequisite: ANTH 1002 (or equivalent) or permission of the instructor.

ANTH4523Forensic Analysis of Human Teeth (O)3 ch (2C 1L) [W]

This course provides students with a detailed introduction to the methodology used in the study of human teeth in forensics, biological anthropology, and archaeology. Students are taught how to use teeth in establishing a biological profile for human remains using anatomical aspects of human dentition as well as morphological variation, pathology, and changes with age and development. Topics selected for study represent areas of current research that address important questions in the study of forensic identification, human biological variation, bioarchaeology, and human origins.

Prerequisite: ANTH 2505 or permission of the instructor.

ANTH4524Bioarcheology (O)3 ch (3S) [W]

In this course students are introduced to advanced topics in the discipline of bioarchaeology, the application of biological anthropological techniques to reconstruct the lives of past populations from an archaeological context using their skeletal remains. Specific topics include patterns of subsistence, diet, disease, demography, and physical activity.

Prerequisite: ANTH 3525 or permission of the instructor.

ANTH4602Genes and People: Anthropological Applications (O)3 ch (3L) [W]

This course introduces the basic concepts of human genetics and examines its application in anthropological research. Topics covered include: human genetic variability and its role in disease prevention and susceptibility; the use of DNA in reconstructing the biological profile of human remains from forensic contexts; and using ancient DNA to trace population migrations and resolve issues of human origins. Ethical questions and implications pertaining to the human genome project and human genetic research are also addressed.

ANTH4702Gender and Health (A)3 ch (3S) [W]

A course designed to evaluate the gender dimension of health and disease, and addresses the articulation of gender roles and ideology with health status, the organization of health care, and health policy in a cross-cultural perspective. Gender is a cultural construct, and cultural ideas about women’s health and women’s bodies differ between social groups and historical periods. Gender issues pertain to men as well, and male gender roles and expectations are also culturally constructed. There are biomedical consequences to the cultural constructions of gender differences. The course examines how expressions of gender and power can play a role in prevention and treatment strategies.

Prerequisite: ANTH 2504 or permission of the instructor.

ANTH5001Anthropology Honours Seminar 3 ch (3S) [W]

Students explore the research process through conducting an individual research project in anthropology, developed in conjunction with the instructor. In addition, students engage in professional development and experiential opportunities.

Prerequisites: Open only to Anthropology Honours or qualifying students, or with permission of the instructor.