NOTE: See the beginning of Section F for abbreviations, course numbers and coding.

GEOL1044The Earth: Its Origin and Evolution5 ch (3C 3L)

Basic geological concepts, geological time, material of the earth's crust, igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, earthquakes, evolution of continents and ocean basins, sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics, coastlines.

GEOL1074Earth Processes, Resources and the Environment5 ch (3C 3L)

Structural geology, origin and evolution of life from fossils, geomorphology of landforms, mineral resources and fossil fuels, environmental geology, hydrology, engineering geology. 

Prerequisite: GEOL 1044.

GEOL2131Crystallography and Mineralogy5 ch (2C 4L)

Fundamentals of crystallography and the classification, identification, occurrence and origin of the major rock and ore-forming minerals. Concludes by defining sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks in terms of mineral assemblages.

Prerequisite: GEOL 1044/GEOL 1074.

GEOL2142Optical Mineralogy and Petrography5 ch (2C 4L)

Fundamental polarizing microscope techniques as applied to the identification of crystalline materials. Systematic study of the composition, phase relations and occurrence of rock-forming minerals with an emphasis on their identification in thin section as individuals and as members of mineral assemblages.

Prerequisite: GEOL 2131.

GEOL2201Biogeology I (Systematic Paleontology)5 ch (3C 2L)

Morphology, paleoecology and biostratigraphy of selected groups of marine invertebrates represented in the fossil record; comparisons with modern invertebrates in present-day oceans stressed.

GEOL2212Sedimentology I5 ch (3C 2L)

Sedimentary structures, principles of sedimentation, selected sedimentary environments, with emphasis on marine environments, comparison of present-day models with occurrences in the geological record.

GEOL2262Earth, and the Composition of the World5 ch (3C 3L)
This integrative, multi-disciplinary course explores the links between our physical, biological and cultural worlds. It examines how elements are grouped by similarities of properties, and how these are expressed in the minerals and rocks that we see and interact with. It then addresses the use of these properties by plant and animal life, and how these physical constituents of our world have influenced aspects of human life, such as prehistory, history, economics, industry, music, stories and myths. Lab sessions are an integral part of the course, giving students the opportunity to experience how earth materials are extracted, used and celebrated. NOTE: This course is open to students of all faculties and is also suitable for students wishing to minor in Geology.

: successful completion of at least 30 ch, or permission of instructor.
GEOL2321Structural Geology I5 ch (3C 3L)

Emphasis on the description and classification of folds, cleavages, lineations, joints and faults. Presentation of structural data. Use of primary structures. Salt tectonics. Structure of igneous rocks. Laboratories include stereographic projection, interpretation of geological maps and preparation of geological cross sections.

GEOL2703Field School6 ch

Principles of stratigraphic mapping. 

Prerequisite: GEOL 1044/GEOL 1074.

GEOL3102Introduction to Geoarcheology5 ch (3C 3L)

Provides an overview of and practical experience with geological techniques used in archaeology, examining the influence of geology on human societies, on the preservation of archaeological sites, and on the potential for re-discovery of those sites. Lectures and laboratory will examine dating methods, alluvial sediments, coastal erosion or buildup, soils, stone tool and other raw materials, the post-depositional evolution of archaeological sites, and paleo environments.

Prerequisite: At least one course in Geology (GEOL), or SCI 1862.
GEOL3103Techniques of Thin-Section Petroscopy of Geoarcheology (O)4 ch (3C 3L)
This is a lab-based course aimed at providing students with the theory, background, and practice necessary for them to be able to take a set of thin sections of rocks, describe them, and use them to answer a research question related to geoarcheology. Enrolment is limited to 8 participants.Prerequisites: At least 10 ch of Geology (GEOL 1044 and GEOL 1074, or equivalent), or permission of this instructor. Preference may be given to students who have successfully completed GEOL 3102, Introduction to Geoarcheology.
GEOL3222Biota-Substrate Relationships3 ch (3C)

Relationships between various substrate types, mainly in subtidal marine environments, and benthic biotas they support, with examples drawn mainly from Atlantic (temperate and sub-tropical) and Mediterranean areas. Comparisons between present-day relationships and those from fossil record are made.

GEOL3442Environmental Geology3 ch (3C)

The role of Geology in the management of our environment. Issues examined may include natural hazards; soil, water, mineral and energy resources; contamination; global systems and change. 

Prerequisite: GEOL 1044 or approved equivalent.