III. Examination, Standing and Promotion
A. Course Syllabus
- It is the function of the instructor to evaluate and assess a student's work in a course and to award interim and final course grades.
- The final standing of each student, in each course is assessed on the final examination, if one is held, and term work (essays, reports, assignments, tests [including lab and fieldwork tests], mid-course examinations, practicums or internships, attendance and participation requirements and any other work contributes to the final grade.).
- No later than the second (2nd) Friday of the term the instructor must provide the students attending with a course syllabus that includes:
i. a full explanation of the basis on which the final grade will be calculated, that is: the weighting of tests, examinations, assignments, practicums or internships, attendance and participation requirements, and any other work which contributes to the final grade.
ii. information on the approximate scheduling of term work which contributes to the final grade and an indication of when and how the final scheduling will be determined
iii. The University of New Brunswick places a high value on academic integrity and has a policy on plagiarism, cheating and other academic offences.
- quoting verbatim or almost verbatim from any source, including all electronic sources,without acknowledgement;
- adopting someone else's line of thought, argument, arrangement, or supporting evidence without acknowledgement;
- submitting someone else's work, in whatever form without acknowledgement;
- knowingly representing as one's own work any idea of another.
Examples of other academic offences include: cheating on exams, tests, assignments or reports; impersonating somebody at a test or exam; obtaining an exam, test or other course materials through theft, collusion, purchase or other improper manner, submitting course work that is identical or substantially similar to work that has been submitted for another course; and more as set out in the academic regulations found in the Undergraduate Calendar.
Penalties for plagiarism and other academic offences range from a minimum of F (zero) in the assignment, exam or test to a maximum of suspension or expulsion from the University, plus a notation of the academic offence on the student’s transcript.
For more information, please see the Undergraduate Calendar, Section B, Regulation VIII.A, or visit //www.unb.ca/academics/calendar/undergraduate/current/regulations/universitywideacademicregulations/viii-academicoffences/index.html . It is the student’s responsibility to know the regulations.
4. The course syllabus shall be distributed to the class and may be provided:
i. in writing in a regular class period, or
ii. by any electronic means which has been established as a method of communication within the course and for which student access and support are provided by the University.
5. The decisions made by the instructor about the content of the course syllabus are not appealable. Decisions made by the instructor about the weighting of tests, examinations, assignments, practicums or internships, attendance and participation requirements, and any other work which contributes to the final grade are not subject to appeal unless demonstrably unfair in the circumstances.
6. Regulations governing review or appeal of a grade assigned are found in the Review of Grades section of the Calendar regulations.
B. Examinations and Evaluation of Course Work
- The method of examination in a course is determined by the instructor.
- Final examinations, if any, for fall term courses, and mid-course examinations, are held in December. Final examinations, if any, for winter term courses and for all-year courses (fall and winter term) are normally held in April.
- Instructors must notify students, preferably within the first two weeks of classes and by no later than the mid-point of a course, if the final examination is to be a take-home examination or one that is to be included in the University’s official examination schedule. Students must be informed if the final examination is an open or closed book format by the mid-point of the course. Such notification shall be:
a. in writing distributed to the class in a regular class period, or
b. by any electronic means which has been established as a method of communication within the course and for which student access and support are provided to the University.
- The final examination in any course may be waived by the instructor. Notice that an examination has been waived must be communicated to the students attending the course within two weeks of the first lecture.
- a. No examination or test may be held in the last 10 lecture days of any term or during the reading period, but see d) below .
b. All term work is due not later than the last day of lectures.
c. A paper, assignment or take-home examination given in lieu of final examination shall be provided to students by the last day of classes and is due the last day of the examination schedule.
d. The following may be exceptions to the regulations (a) and (c):
i. courses with regular, usually weekly, tests;
ii. course requiring laboratory examinations of a practical nature;
iii. courses in which oral examinations are given. In such cases a mutually agreeable time may be arranged between the student and the instructor.
In the case of the exceptions i) and ii) the tests or examinations must be held during the regular class period. A student or faculty member reports instances of contravention of this regulation to the Registrar.
- Normally, tests held during the regular lecture period (other than final examinations scheduled by the Registrar) are to be conducted during a regularly scheduled class time. In exceptional circumstances and with the approval of the Dean, an instructor may schedule a test for another time. Such a test is to replace, rather than add to, the regularly scheduled class periods for the course and it must not interrupt other regularly scheduled classes or tests for students.
- The time period for an official examination scheduled during the final examination period shall not exceed three (3) hours.
There will be at least two (2) hours between the end of one examination period and the start of the next period, allowing for three (3) examination periods each day (Monday to Saturday) during the final examination period.
Students normally may not leave the examination room during the first half hour (30 minutes) of the examination period. Students may be permitted to enter the examination room during the first half hour and will only be permitted to enter after that time with the approval of the course instructor or designate. In such cases the instructor or designate may provide additional writing time in response to the circumstances.
- Students may apply to the Registrar's Office to write a final examination at an alternate time on the basis of documented extenuating circumstances (See Item E., Final Examinations to be written at anAlternate Time).
The University recognizes that there are dates of religious significance other than those identified in the UNB Calendar of Academic Dates. Students whose religious beliefs would prevent them from attending classes or writing tests or final examinations due to their observance of those dates, should contact their instructor(s) at the beginning of the term to request accommodation. Deadlines for assignments that fall on dates of religious observance must still be met unless alternate arrangements have been agreed to by the instructor and/or the Registrar, as the case may require. Instructors will make reasonable efforts to accommodate such requests. Instructors have the right to request verification of dates of religious observance.
- A student who is scheduled to write three examinations in one 24-hour period during the formal examination period may apply to the Registrar to write one of the examinations at another time during the examination period.
- Instructors must notify students as soon as possible and no later than two weeks prior to the end of classes, of the specific items, other than normal writing instruments (such as pens, pencils, rulers and erasers), they may use in the examination room. These include tables, formulae, memoranda, other electronic or mechanical aids. Notification shall be:
a. in writing distributed to the class in a regular class period, or
b. by any electronic means which has been established as a method of communication within the course and for which student access and support are provided by the university.
- UNB does not permit the use of personal communication devices during test or exam periods - in particular, devices that could potentially be used to communicate with others while writing an exam, or play back prerecorded video, sound or text during an exam. Such devices include, but are not limited to, cell phones, pagers, text messaging devices, personal recording devices, PDAs, personal computers including laptops, certain types of calculators and electronic translators. Using such devices during exams will be considered an academic offense as per Section VIII of the University Regulations. Exemptions may be made by a professor if a particular device is required in order to complete the exam. See: Academic Calendar, Academic Section, III B.10.
- Students may see their own examinations and papers, by arrangement with the instructor, after the grades have been released.
C. Language of Examination
Students who wish to write their examinations in French rather than English must apply in writing to the Registrar one month in advance of the examination date. Permission may be denied in certain courses, particularly in courses where language is part of the course content.
Students admitted without having passed the appropriate high school or equivalent English course, or who were not required to demonstrate on admission an acceptable level of English usage on an approved English test, may, at the discretion of the instructor in consultation with the Registrar, be given special consideration in writing examinations, tests and assignments. Such special consideration may include oral examinations and/or extension of the time to write an examination. Consideration will not be granted after two years at UNB or any other English speaking institution.
Students who wish to be considered under this provision must make the request to the instructor no later than the mid point of the term.
D. Supplemental Examination
Supplemental examinations are not offered in any Faculty of the University, except the Faculty of Law.
E. Final Examinations Written at an Alternate Time
- Students, who by reason of illness or extenuating circumstances, are unable to write a final examination at the posted times may apply to the Registrar for permission to write a final examination at an alternate time. A final examination written at an alternate time takes the place of the regularly scheduled final examinations which the student was unable to write. Applications for a final examination at an alternate time, supported by health certificates or other supporting documentation, must reach the Registrar within two weeks of the posted date of the final examinations which the student was unable to write.
- Students who become ill and withdraw for this reason during a final examination, or who feel that their performance was affected seriously by illness, even if they do not withdraw, must, if they wish to be eligible to take a final examination at an alternate time (deferred final examination), notify their instructor or an invigilator before leaving the examination room. They should then go immediately to be examined medically. They may then apply to the Registrar within two weeks of the original date of the final examinations to write at an alternate time (deferred final examination). Students who know that they will be unable to attend can apply before the originally posted date.
- When a request to write a final examination at an alternate time is approved and will be written on campus, the student must contact the instructor in the course to determine a mutually agreeable time and place for the examination.
- The designation Incomplete (INC) is recorded for the course in which approval has been granted for the final examination to be written at an alternate time. It is expected that the alternate examination will be written and a final grade submitted by the instructor to the Registrar’s Office within two months after the final date for classes in the course in question. This period may be extended upon the recommendation of the course instructor and with the approval of the Registrar. If the final grade is not received by the appropriate date the Registrar will assign a grade of “F” on the student’s record. Refer to the regulations on Incomplete for a further explanation of “INC” grades.
- It is expected that such examinations will be written after the date and time of the regularly scheduled final examination. Students who, because of documented extenuating circumstances, wish to write the final examination before the date and time of the scheduled final examination should submit their request and supporting documentation to the Registrar. If the alternate examination is approved then the student should contact the instructor and to see if an arrangement to write early is possible. Instructors have no obligation to permit a student to write an examination ahead of the scheduled date.
- Normally examinations will be written on campus. Should students find it necessary to write the examination off campus, they are required to submit their request with supporting documentation to the Registrar. The request will be reviewed with the instructor and when if it is agreed that the final examination is to be written off campus, the student will be advised. All arrangements are made through the Registrar’s Office Students are responsible for all charges incurred for final examinations written off-campus.
- In the rare instance when a student is scheduled to write three final examinations in one 24-hour period during the final examination period, the student may apply to the Registrar to write one of the examinations at another time during the examination period.
- Application to take a final examination at an alternate time on grounds not considered acceptable by the Registrar may be referred to the appropriate Senate Committee. The student must make such request to the Registrar within two weeks from the date of the Registrar’s letter of notification of this decision.
F. Students with Disabilities
The University of New Brunswick is committed to ensuring students with disabilities receive appropriate academic accommodations in accordance with the New Brunswick Human Rights Act and applicable UNB Policies and Procedures. Students with disabilities may request reasonable accommodations to enable them to complete academic requirements by providing the applicable campus centre, UNB Fredericton Student Accessibility Centre or the UNB Saint John Student Accessibility Centre, with satisfactory professional reports containing specific recommended accommodations necessary for the student to achieve the course, examination and program completion. Documentation may need to be renewed as appropriate to reflect the students’ ongoing need for academic accommodation.
G. Grading System and Classification
Courses in the University are offered in a classroom setting, laboratory setting or through some method of distance education. The regular academic session year is September - April. Within this session, there are two terms, 15 weeks each (including the examination period) September - December and January - April. In addition, there is a Summer Term for both Fredericton Campus and Saint John Campus that runs from May 1 - Aug 31. Within this term there are six sessions that have specific start and end dates. Details are listed under the Important Academic Dates by visiting //www.unb.ca/academics/calendars.html. All courses offered by the University are referred to as term courses or full-year courses.
- Full-Year Courses: Those courses that are normally completed over the two terms associated with regular academic session year.
- Term Courses: Those courses that are normally completed in one term during the regular academic session.
Competence in English Courses
The University places great importance on its students achieving competence in English. To this end, students are required to complete successfully with a mark of C or above a minimum of 12 ch of courses that contain a significant amount of writing in English. Students should consult their Faculty advisors to determine which courses satisfy this requirement. The courses which satisfy this requirement are identified by [W].
- Each Faculty is responsible for assigning credit values to courses within its jurisdiction. These credit values are approved by the appropriate University Senate. Credit hour values may range from 1-8 although the typical term course has a 3 credit hour weight and a typical full-year course has a 6 credit hour weight.
Students should consult the Financial Information Section of this calendar for information on tuition charges and full-time/part-time status based on the credit value of courses taken.
- Most Faculties, in their own regulations, state the minimum number of credit hours which must be successfully completed for graduation in each degree program. Credit hour requirements for degree programs in Saint John are given in Section E, and in Fredericton are given in Section G.
- Students accumulate credit hours, as assigned, for courses completed with a grade of D or better (See below).
- Faculties may consider courses offered by other Faculties to have satisfied a half-course (normally 3 credit hours) or a full course (normally 6 credit hours) regardless of the credit hours attached to the course in the calendar and recorded on the student's transcript of record. Students should consult the relevant sections of this calendar for Faculty policies.
With the exception of the School of Graduate Studies and Faculty of Law, a candidate's final standing in a course is indicated by the following letter grades:
A+ 4.3 grade points
A excellent performance 4.0 grade points
A- 3.7 grade points
B+ 3.3 grade points
B good performance 3.0 grade points
B- 2.7 grade points
C+ 2.3 grade points
C satisfactory performance 2.0 grade points
D less than satisfactory performance 1.0 grade points
F failure 0.0 grade points
WF failure 0.0 grade points
- A grade of D will be considered for program credit only in certain circumstances. See Faculty regulations and refer to program descriptions in this calendar.
- Departments have the right to decide whether or not a D meets prerequisite or Major requirements. See appropriate degree and departmental listings.
- Credit hours for courses with an "F" or "WF" grade may not be counted towards graduation, but will be used as credit hours attempted in assessing grade point average.
- Courses taken at St. Thomas University as part of a student's regular course load in which the final grade is C- will normally not be accepted for credit if a grade of at least C in the course in question is required in the student's program of study.
- INC (Incomplete)
Issued on the recommendation of the instructor and approved by the Registrar, in situations where students present written evidence of medical or extenuating circumstances which prevent completion of the work within the stated time period. It is expected that the work will be completed within two months after the final date for classes in the course. A grade of F will normally be assigned if the work is not completed. The period for completion may be extended upon recommendation of the instructor and with the approval of the Registrar. It is the responsibility of the student to seek such an extension before the expiration of the two month period. Evidence of medical or compassionate grounds to substantiate such a request must be submitted to the Registrar.
The designation incomplete (INC) is recorded for courses in which deferred examinations are to be written.
- Aegrotat (AEG) Standing
Used rarely. The student has been unable to complete the course because of a serious illness or a compassionate situation but has been given pass standing on the basis of previous work. Requests should be addressed to the Registrar.
- AUD (Audit)
A student wishing to attend classes in a given degree credit course without being assigned a grade may register to "audit" the course, subject to the following regulations:
a. Registrations for audit will not be accepted without permission of the course instructor.
b. The degree of class participation allowed to an auditor is at the discretion of course instructor. No grade is assigned for the course and such a course is not a credit.
c. The normal regulations and deadlines regarding course adds and drops apply.
d. A 'credit registration' in a course may not normally be changed to an 'audit' after the first two weeks of the term. Similarly a registration for 'audit' may be changed to a 'credit registration' only with the support of the faculty, and with the permission of the Registrar.
e. In courses with enrollment requirements and/or restrictions, priority for registration will be given to individuals taking the courses as full fee-paying registrants.
f. For a part-time student the audit fee will be one-half of the regular course fee (see Fees, Section C).
The following actions may also appear on the student transcript in lieu of or adjacent to the grade.
- CR (credit) NCR (no credit)
- X (Extra)
Extra course, not credited to the program the student is enrolled in during that session and the grade is not include in the calculation of grade point averages. Such a notation must be requested by the mid-point of the term.
- # On the basis of an appeal, the grade shown but not included in grade point average calculations.
- W (Withdraw without academic penalty)
- CTN (Course continues in next term)
H. Calculation of Grade Point Averages
Grade point averages are calculated by dividing the total number of grade points obtained (credit hours x grade point weight) by the number of credit hours attempted during the period in question in the program. Grade point averages are shown to one decimal place. The University calculates two grade point averages, which form part of the student's official record: the Assessment Grade Point Average; and the Cumulative Grade Point Average.
With the approval of their faculty advisor, a student may specify that a course is "extra" to the program and should not be included in their grade point average. Such a notation must be requested by the mid point of the term.
Assessment GPA: For all students, the assessment GPA is calculated at the end of the assessment period, May - April, provided that 24 credit hours or more have been attempted in the program since the last assessment in that program. All work attempted toward the current program of study (including the no degree program) is included in the assessment with the exception of courses designated with the "W", "#" or "X" notation.
Cumulative GPA: Is based on all work taken toward a degree program. The cumulative grade point average is used to determine the student's divisional standing at graduation.
Scholarship GPA: In addition, for the purpose of awarding scholarships, a Scholarship GPA is calculated at the end of the assessment year (May to April) provided that 24 credit hours or more have been attempted, regardless of program. For students involved in work placement programs such as Co-op or PEP, the scholarship average is calculated using the Dean's List criteria. This GPA is held internally and is not displayed on the student's transcript of record.
I. Standing and Promotion Requirements
- In order to continue in good academic standing a student must achieve an assessment g.p.a of at least 2.0 for the assessment period. A transcript notation "In good academic standing"; appears at the end of the term record.
a. A student whose assessment g.p.a. falls below 2.0 but above 1.0 in an assessment period is placed on academic probation. A student is allowed to go on academic probation only once in a program.
b. Academic probation constitutes notice of unsatisfactory performance and is a warning that the student must improve to meet the grade point average requirements of the program in order to avoid being required to withdraw from the University.
c. A student who has previously been placed on academic probation and whose g.p.a. in any subsequent assessment period falls below 2.0 is, subject to review by the Faculty concerned, required to withdraw from the University for at least 12 months. If such a student is readmitted, it is normally on academic probation.
d. A student whose g.p.a falls to 1.0 or below in any assessment period is required to withdraw from the University for at least 12 months. If such a student is readmitted, it is normally on academic probation.
Note: No credit is granted for courses taken during the 12 month period during which a student is required to withdraw.
- Students whose g.p.a. on assessment is such that they would normally be placed on academic probation, or be required to withdraw from the University, will be allowed to graduate if all other requirements of the program have been completed at that time. Law students should refer to the Faculty regulation in the Faculty of Law Calendar.
- If, at the end of the term in which a student has completed all the other requirements of the program, the student has not reached the end of an assessment interval, the student will be allowed to graduate without reference to the g.p.a. in that session.
J. Dean's List Criteria
The Faculties of the University publicly recognize superior academic performance for their students by publishing Dean's lists. Such distinction is also noted on the transcript of record. Criteria for inclusion on a Dean's list are as follows:
- Decisions for full-time and part-time students are based on assessment grade point averages which are calculated in May of each year provided at least 24 credit hours have been attempted since the last assessment grade point average was recorded.
- In all Faculties an assessment grade point average of 3.7 or higher must be achieved, except in the Faculty of Law where the minimum assessment grade point average for inclusion on the Dean's list is 3.3 and the student stands among the top 10 percent of his or her class.
- Courses, including practicum courses, with final evaluations of credit/no credit rather than a letter grade will be included as part of the 24 credit hours required in the grade point average assessment.
- Students who in their final year of study do not have any assessment grade point calculation will be included on a Dean's list provided such a distinction was earned on the last assessment and provided a letter grade of "B" or higher was achieved in all courses taken. At least 12 credit hours of work must have been undertaken to have Dean's list status under this provision.
- Co-op students will be subject to these regulations:
a. one work term in the assessment period - at least 24 credit hours required
b. two work terms in the assessment period - at least 15 credit hours required
c. December program completion - at least 15 credit hours from September 1 - December 31
d. Second year co-op students with a January work term - at least 15 credit hours required
- Students on a professional experience program (PEP) must have successfully completed the work term and have completed at least 15 credit hours in one term during the assessment grade point average period.
- Course work done off-campus with permission will not form part of the assessment grade point average and subsequent decision concerning inclusion on a Dean's list. The Dean has the right to add such students to the Dean's List where deemed appropriate.
- Students must be enrolled in a degree, diploma or certificate program to be included on a Dean's list.
- Students enrolled in a concurrent or joint degree program will be considered for the Dean's list in both Faculties represented.
K. Submission of Final Course Grades
- The term work in a course (excluding any work given in lieu of a final examination, see Examination, Standing and Promotion regulations, item A(6)) must be submitted by the last day of lectures or earlier as required by the instructor. The instructor must submit a final grade based on the work submitted by the student, including term work and examination, as determined by the instructor.
- Once a grade has been submitted a student is not permitted to do work extra or additional to that required of other students in a course in order to gain a better grade in the course.
- A request to change a recorded grade in a course is to be made to the Registrar via the instructor’s secure web grade change form. An explanation of the reason/s for the change must be included at the time of the submission.
L. Review of Grades
1. Review of Grade on an Individual Piece of Work
a. Students may discuss with the course instructor the grade on any piece of work regardless of its value. For a course that is not the responsibility of a single academic unit, the coordinator of the course will replace the Department Chair in the review process.
b. For purposes of the formal review process, individual pieces of work may include: Term tests, computerized tests, examinations other than final examinations, term papers, essays, reports, group projects and oral tests/examinations worth at least 20 per cent in the calculation of the final grade in the course.
c. Students have the right to request a formal review of graded assignments such as those listed above. The grounds are restricted to: the overall assessment of the evaluation is demonstrably unfair; the evaluation was not consistent within the class; there was a miscalculation of the grade.
d. There are two steps to follow for the formal review process:
i. The student must discuss the piece of work with the instructor involved within two weeks of the receipt of the grade for the individual item.
ii. After this first step and if requested by the student in writing or by e-mail to the Chair of the Department, or Dean of the Faculty if there is no Department or Chair, a review will be conducted with such Chair, the instructor and the student. If desired, a student has the right to meet with the Chair without the instructor present prior to this review. The review must be conducted within 7 days after the review with the instructor. The decision of this review is final and the reasons for the decision will be provided to the student in writing by the Chair.
A student who has not requested a grade review of an individual piece of work that is reviewable, or who has requested a grade review of an individual piece of work and is not satisfied with the result, may not ask for a review of a final grade on the basis of that individual piece of work.
2. General Information
a. In all reviews, it is expected that the process will be carried out expeditiously by the reviewer/s.
b. Graded materials held by the instructor must be retained for twelve months after the end of the term.
c. Students requesting a review are expected to provide reviewers with original graded assignments returned to them by the instructor. Such assignments must not have been altered (please refer to the section on university regulations governing academic offences).
d. Work will be reviewed, as requested, in a manner that ensures that all concerns raised by the student have been properly addressed, taking into account the course outline and that the totaling of the grades and other items contributing to the grade were done accurately. In instances when consistency in grading is being considered, a minimum of three other pieces of class work completed by other students will be examined by the reviewer(s). Graded materials in the custody of the instructor will be provided to the reviewers by the instructor in a manner that ensures identifying information has been removed. Where the graded work has been returned to students, the student requesting the review must provide graded work for comparison.
e. The grade originally assigned may be raised, remain the same or be lowered as a result of the review.
3. Review of the Final Course Grade
a. Prior to requesting a formal review of a final grade, students will discuss the grade with the instructor. For a team-taught course the coordinator of the course will replace the instructor in the review process. Where no course coordinator exists, the Dean of the Faculty or Chair of the Department will designate one of the course instructors as course coordinator.
b. Students who are not satisfied with the decision of the instructor or course coordinator have the right to request a review of the official final grade received in a course on the proper form (available in the Office of the Registrar or online at //www.unb.ca/fredericton/registrar/students/currstuforms.html ). Such requests must be received by the Registrar, in writing, within 90 days after the end of the course or examination period, where applicable. A fee of $50.00 must accompany the request. The fee will be refunded if the grade is subsequently raised.
c. Students should clearly outline the grounds for the request to review the final grade. Normally the grounds are restricted to one or more of the following:
i. the final grade is demonstrably unfair;
ii. the calculation of the final grade was not consistent with the class;
iii. the calculation of the final grade was not based on all the work completed; or
iv. there was a miscalculation of the final grade;
d. The Registrar shall refer the request for formal review to a committee consisting of:
i. one member who is selected by the student and who is a member of the Department or Faculty involved;
ii. one member who is selected by the instructor and who is a member of the Department of Faculty involved; and
iii. the Chair of the Department or Dean of the Faculty or a designate selected by the Chair or Dean, provided that the Chair, Dean or designate shall be a member of the Faculty or Department. In the event that the student or instructor is unable to select a member for the review committee, the Dean or Chair will select.
e. If the review is a class action involving two or more students enrolled in a-course,
i. the students who are in the course requesting the review will collectively select one member of the Committee; and
ii. if more than one instructor, the instructors involved in the teaching of the course will collectively select one member of the Committee.
The criteria for a grade review for a class action are as follows:
i. the grade of all class members requesting the review must be at issue;
ii. the grounds for the review must be the same for all class members requesting the review; and
iii. the requested outcome of the review must produce a consistent result for all class members
f. Grades assigned in practicum courses, in co-op courses, or final examinations in any course shall be subject to review only under the final course grade review process.
g. Students who intend to appeal the results of a review of a final course grade must do so within 4 weeks after the date of notification by the Registrar's Office. The procedures for filing an appeal must be followed and reasons for the appeal are to be clearly outlined.