Conference Schedule | Arts Matters Conference | UNB

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Conference schedule

Full schedule

* Subject to change as we confirm conference events and student panels

6 p.m. | Online meet & greet

6:30 - 7 p.m. | Opening Remarks from Piluwitahasuwin Amanda Myran

7 - 7:30 p.m. | Matthew Sears (Classics & Ancient History), Times of Change and Upheaval in Ancient Greece: Lessons for Today

7:30 - 8 p.m. | Questions for speakers

8:30 a.m. - 12:20 p.m. | Morning Program: Speaker and Student Conference Panels

8:30 - 9 a.m. | Optional morning social chat / introductions

9 - 9:45 a.m.David Hofmann (Sociology) & Caitlin Hyslop-Margison (Joint Honours in Sociology & History), ARTS MATTERS: Right-Wing Extremism in Canada

10 - 11:15 a.m. | Student Panel 1

11:20am - 12:20 p.m. | Student Panel 2

Lunch Break

12:50 - 2 p.m. | Queer Environmental Futures Workshop with Sabine LeBel (Culture and Media Studies)

2:10 - 3:10 p.m. | Student Panel 3

3:20 - 4:20 p.m. | Student Panel 4

4:30 - 5:30 p.m. | Student Panel 5

10 - 10:45 a.m. | Amy Scott (Anthropology): Archaeology and Alliance: The Necessity of Interdisciplinary Collaboration when Excavating the Past.

11 a.m. - 12:15 p.m. | Student Panel 6

12:20 - 1:20 p.m. | Student Panel 7

Break for prize deliberations

3 p.m. | Awards and Closing Remarks

Panel 1

9 - 10 a.m. | Chair: Rose Grant

Title: Standards of Care: Expertise, Authority, and Legitimacy in Trans Health

Abstract: The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) is most widely known for creating the Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People (SOC). What WPATH has done with the SOC is produce expert knowledge through professional consensus of the best ways treat ‘gender dysphoria.’ While WPATH may present itself as the overarching authority on ‘trans health,’ it produces a relatively narrow vision of trans health that reduces the health of an incredibly diverse population to the diagnosis and treatment of gender dysphoria and managing the effects of gender affirming procedures such as hormones and surgery.

By applying theories of boundary work, expertise, and authority, I find that the SOC constructs a boundary between the science and politics of trans health in an attempt to maintain the objectivity of the science to reinforce the legitimacy of the SOC as set of clinical guidelines. However, the SOC’s role in guiding public and private insurance providers in determining coverage for gender affirming care shows that the document has inherent political consequences.

Title: I Am What I Am: Gender and The Voice

Abstract: As a non-binary singer myself, navigating the deeply gendered world of singing and voice education has always been difficult for me. To help myself understand as both a singer and a future music educator, I have completed research on the tools that a voice professor must have to support singers and students of any gender identity. A voice teacher must have: an accurate understanding of what it means to be transgender, the proper vocabulary to discuss vocal techniques outside of gendered stereotypes, knowledge of the physical aspects of medically transitioning, and knowledge of the psychological and societal challenges faced by transgender singers.

I touch on the topic of genderless vocabulary in vocal instruction by discussing updated language that is becoming more common amongst transgender people themselves, as well as in educational institutions, and by discussing voice feminization and masculinization. I reference multiple articles on the physical effects of hormone therapy and medical transitioning, and how voice instructors can accommodate for students whose voices are changing. Primarily, I discuss how voice instructors can assist students experiencing gender dysphoria, and voice related gender dysphoria, through creating a safe space free of gendered language and gender stereotypes, researching, and promoting prominent transgender classical singers in the field, and working with students to select repertoire that does not make them feel any type of dysphoria.

Title: Queer in Saskatchewan

Abstract: I self-identify as queer and bisexual. I am from Treaty 6 Territory, the Homeland of the Métis. My work is primarily spoken word poetry with a focus on my experiences of being queer in the primarily conservative province of Saskatchewan. It wasn’t until my fourth year of university in 2021 that I began questioning my sexuality when I fell in love with a woman, despite already being in a two-year long relationship with a man. I never questioned my sexuality until then because I was raised to believe that all people are and should be heterosexual. Of course, I was aware of people who did not fit into the social norms of society, such as the queer community, but I lacked the connection to this community.

I found sanctuary in the arts community where people were very accepting of those who may not fit the traditional mold set by dominant culture. I started writing when I began high school, I found that writing helped me to express my emotions and deal with them in a healthy way. When I began university, I stopped writing as I was diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and an episode of major depressive disorder. Recently, I have started writing again and I would love to be able to share my work with like-minded people who are interested in the experience of a queer person in Saskatchewan.

Title: One Kilometre in my Starving Body

Content note: This audio piece contains direct references to living with anorexia, potentially triggering restrictive eating comments, and lists symptoms experienced after restrictive eating. Audience discretion is advised. If you or anyone you know is experiencing eating disorder patterns, we encourage you to seek help. Eating Disorders Nova Scotia | Chimo Helpline

Abstract: Like many, I developed mental health issues over the course of the pandemic, specifically anorexia nervosa. During my fight against anorexia, I felt like nobody understood what I was going through. I was going through so much guilt, fear, anxiety, depression… It was horrible. I wanted to share my perspective on what it is like living with anorexia. This audio clip was made in response to a prompt in one of my classes. We were told to bring one kilometre to class, so I brought one kilometre of me running on a treadmill from the perspective of where my head was at this time last year.

Everything I say is a direct quote from my journal of my thoughts or things that people said to me. Showing this project to people helped others realize that there is not something wrong with them resulting in body insecurities, but something wrong with the society that tells people that only a certain type of body is acceptable, and if you do not have that body, you should do anything you can to change your own to fit what is deemed “ideal.”

Panel 2

10:10 - 11:10 a.m. | Chair: Fernando Aguilar

Title: Applying Herman and Chomsky’s Propaganda Model as an Historical Tool: A Critical Analysis of New Brunswick Newspaper Coverage on the Russian Revolution, 1917-1920

Abstract: Between 1917 and 1925, numerous local, regional, and provincial labour revolts erupted across Canada. In both New Brunswick and Canada at large, a broad coalition of labour unionists, farmers, primary producers, women, and newly immigrated populations stood side by side to protest the continuation of the Canadian effort in World War I, as well as strike for better wages and enact new forms of industrial unionism. By the Summer of 1919, upwards of 30,000 citizens in Winnipeg held a General Strike. Workers halted the city’s normal functioning and established, for the first time in Canadian history, a self-governed branch of working-class democracy: The Central Strike Committee.

The Canadian labour revolt created unprecedented fissures within state hegemony. Between 1917 and 1920, these fissures coincided with massive eruptions of working-class action during the Russian Revolution, a national event with truly international significance. Activists in Canada wielded ideologies, languages, and strategies borrowed from the Russian experiment, reappropriating them back into the Canadian context. Using Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky’s Propaganda Model, this presentation investigates the contents of two local newspapers – Fredericton’s Daily Mail and Newcastle’s The Union Advocate – paying careful attention to their constructions of the Russian Revolution between 1917 and 1920.

I argue that, as postulated by Herman and Chomsky’s Propaganda Model, constructions of the Russian Revolution consistently served the interests of the Canadian state and its owning class. Newspaper coverage was in large part directed and mediated by repressive actions undertaken by the Canadian state, including the deportation of Eastern European migrants, the silencing of dissident newspapers, and the mass arrest of labour oriented and left-wing activists.

Title: On Beauty and Communism: The Bilateral Relationship Between Communist Ideas and Our Attention to Beauty

Abstract: : In the second half of the twentieth century, two topics were often excluded from public discourses in the Western world: beauty and communism. The former was considered damaging and distracting, while the latter was seen as anti-democratic and dangerous. This view on beauty changed when Elaine Scarry, in her book On Beauty and Being Just (1999), put forward the argument at the turn of the century that beauty leads to justice. Since then, many writers have taken up and built upon this claim, agreeing that notions of beauty play an important role in our social and political relations. For Scarry, beautiful things assist in increasing our attention to what is fair and just in society, which in turn draws our attention to what is unfair and unjust, to what needs to change.

By applying a Marxist reading to Scarry’s book, I argue that a heightened attention to beauty raises our awareness of the inequalities and injustices inherent in a capitalist system, both in personal wealth and in individual attention. As a result, we seek a system that shows a sense of fair distribution across society, a quality that, according to Scarry, is present in both beauty and justice. I argue that communism is the answer, since attention would no longer be a privilege of the wealthy and everyone would have the same opportunities to appreciate beauty, be it a work of art, a natural environment, or another human being. I conclude that beauty and communism have a mutual relationship; as in, being more attentive to beauty gives rise to communist ideas and principles, while a society built upon the true principles of communism as envisioned by Marx would allow for a greater attention to beauty.

Title: Exploring the Existence of the Essence of Fascism

Abstract: Fascism was prevalent in Europe during the mid-1900’s. Various states or countries held entirely fascist governments, while others had governments that bordered on being fascist. While there is a common understanding that a fascist government has some basic characteristics such as a dictatorial power structure and ultra-conservative views, there are differences in how these fascist governments ruled. Furthermore, there remains a question of whether all these different fascist governments and ways of ruling make fascism in the various countries fundamentally distinct.

This presentation will aim to show how there is a phenomenological essence of fascism by looking at fascist governments in Italy, France and Germany around the Second World War and their similarities, particularly in their anti-Semitic ideologies. This will be done by understanding French anti-Semitism through Sartre’s Anti-Semite and Jew, Italian fascism through Umberto Eco’s Ur-Fascism and German fascism through Arendt’s work Eichmann in Jerusalem and Winthrop Bell’s espionage report. This analysis will begin by firstly looking at the origins of fascism in these three European countries and then reviewing the anti-Semitic policies of that time period. I will conclude by comparing the representation of fascism in each country to some of Umberto Eco’s underlying principles of fascism.

Title: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the United Nations Declaration on the Right of Indigenous Peoples: Two Case Studies in Human Rights Approaches

Abstract: Human rights have been nearly universally recognized in Canada since the Second World War. What has not been agreed upon is what the proper approach should be to achieving them on the world stage. Using the debate surrounding two major UN Declarations – the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) – this paper outlines the primary approaches taken by Canadian governments to these declarations and their approach to human rights more broadly.

In the case of the UDHR, I will contrast the pragmatism of global affairs minister Lester B. Pearson with the rights-based approach of John P. Humphrey, the declaration’s drafter. Pearson and others in his circle believed food and security to be more practical guarantees of human rights while Humphrey believed that international soft power also had the ability to improve living conditions globally. In the case of UNDRIP, I will show how it has been adopted domestically by certain Indigenous groups to demand the recognition of their rights.

I will also contend that the breaking of precedent to ratify the internationally non-binding agreement amounts to merely a symbolic victory and achieves very little in bridging the actual human rights gap experienced by Indigenous Canadians. For this reason, UNDRIP should be followed by drastic financial and social measures to ensure its principles are met.

Panel 3

11:20 a.m. – 12:20 p.m. | Chair: Indhu Iyengar

Title: Trauma-Informed Activities for Children Who Have Been Exposed to Domestic Violence

Content note: This presentation will touch on the effects of family/domestic violence. For info on resources/support on domestic violence, see Liberty Lane or contact the Chimo Helpline.

Abstract: Family violence affects children across Canada and has been affecting the population at endemic rates. “Among child and youth victims, approximately 16,200 (30%) were victims of family violence perpetrated by a parent, a sibling, a spouse or another type of family member” (Stats Can, para. 8). Family violence has affected children’s development, emotional, and physical health and needs intervention at an early age in order to break the cycle of violence. However, not many children receive the intervention that they need to develop healthy relationships and work towards developing social, emotional, physical, and cognitive skills. Because these violent crimes may go unreported, there is a significant need in developing programs for children who have been exposed to violence. These programs exist at Liberty Lane, a second stage housing program for individuals and their children who have been exposed to domestic violence. As the Children’s Program Assistant, I have been working on developing a trauma-informed binder of activities titled “Trauma-Informed Activities and Tools for Children and Youth” that enriches the children’s program and will help children develop the skills that they need in life to cope with the violence that they have experienced. This binder has been developed with the use of research articles surrounding the topic of family violence as well as materials that have been developed to target specific issues. These topics include anger management, anxiety management, resiliency, coping skills, emotional regulation, identity development, mindfulness, self-awareness, self-assertiveness, self-esteem, and social skills. This binder is also divided into sections that pertain to children aged 2-5, children aged 6-12, and children who have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This work is important as it outlines activities, tools, and strategies that foster recovering from trauma. In addition, doing these programs will allow the cycle of violence to be broken. Children are the next generation, and it is important for them to develop the skills that they need to recover from their trauma.

Title: Valuing Care and Feminized Labour: A Transnational Feminist Analysis of Job Quality in the Community Care Sector

Abstract: It is widely recognized by feminist scholars that care work is significantly undervalued and under-recognized. This is precisely because it is a feminized field and provided by workers who are predominantly women and racialized individuals (see e.g., Kelly et al., 2020; The Care Collective, 2020; Milner et al., 2019; ILO and OECD, 2019). This position underpins a SSHRC Partnership Engage research project with the New Brunswick Coalition for Pay Equity entitled, Valuing Work in Community and Social Care in New Brunswick Through International Perspectives.

This collaborative research project explores how the systems and structures that serve to fund and deliver care work create, reinforce, and perpetuate undervalued and poor-quality employment in the community care sector in New Brunswick, across Canada, and internationally. This presentation provides an overview of the fragmentation of the sector, its effects on employment, and its local and global impact. This presentation will consider the issue of fragmentation, also coined as isolation or silo-ing, through a transnational feminist approach and an intersectional lens. Transnational feminism, a theory emphasizing the deep-rooted linkages between the local and the global, and intersectionality, an analysis that pays attention to identities, power relations, and systems and structures, both highlight the broad scope of fragmentation of the sector. Elements of fragmentation such as the isolation community care workers face, the divisiveness instilled among professions within the sector, and the impact of global care chains in the workforce all serve to trap workers in precarious jobs and to maintain the status quo of under-valuing feminized labour. Ultimately, this piece is an addition to the critical discussions that have been occurring internationally for the past decade on the care crisis—a crisis that has existed and affected many long before the upheaval of the Covid-19 pandemic—and argues that the fragmentation of care work must be addressed as part of a global response to improving community care.

Title: Arching Willows

Abstract: L'Arche Fredericton is a branch of the international organization named L’Arche which aims to offer an alternative form of community for folks with and without intellectual disabilities. A fairly young community, L’Arche Fredericton has already proven its worth in New Brunswick’s capital city. It provides a safe and friendly place for individuals to experience true community while challenging the barriers in society which forces ‘non-conformists’ to the margins.

L’Arche Fredericton has worked to break down these barriers and to share their community through various projects, including a video series which is the center of this presentation. The video that will be presented, titled “Arching Willows,” was designed as a preview for the entire video series that L’Arche Fredericton is producing. It highlights themes which define L’Arche so to create a greater awareness and appreciation of the beauty and joy of the organization. In turn, the “Arching Willows” video series aims to contribute towards forming a healthy and inclusive community.

Panel 4

3:15 - 4:15 p.m. | Chair: Arti Prajapati

Title: Black women in engineering: The influence of race, gender, and education level on hiring decisions

Abstract: In 2017, women represented less than 30% of all Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations in the United States (e.g., National Science Foundation, 2019). Of these occupations, engineering had one of the lowest representations of women (15.6%) (National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 2017). Although the number of women within STEM is increasing, Black women continue to be an enigma. During the same year, Black women represented less than 3% of all STEM and 0.6% of engineering occupations (e.g., National Science Foundation, 2019). If women are increasing in numbers across STEM fields, then why are Black women still struggling with gaining access to these occupations? Are Black women perceived and judged differently than other job candidates?

The current study aims to answer these questions by examining how a candidate’s race (Black vs. White), gender (woman vs. man), and education level (Bachelor of Science vs. Master of Science) influences how others perceive them during the hiring process for an engineering position. In this study, individuals who self-identified as men, resided in North America, and worked in a STEM field were recruited as participants via Prolific. It was hypothesized that Black candidates would be rated as less hireable, likeable, and competent than their White counterparts; however, the effect of race would be stronger in the woman candidate condition. To test these hypotheses, a 2 (race: Black vs. White) X 2 (gender: man’s name vs. woman’s name) X 2 (education level: Bachelor of Science vs. Master of Science) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) will be conducted, with perceived hireability, likeability, and competence as the main dependent variables. Relevant findings will be discussed during this presentation. This research is important as we could gain a better understanding of racism and sexism in the workforce.

Title: How do people express sympathy? A content analysis of American sympathy cards

Abstract: Cultural differences exist in the expression of compassion (Koopmann-Holm et al., 2021), such as how people convey sympathy toward grieving others (Koopmann-Holm & Tsai, 2014). We conducted a content analysis of sympathy messages in cultural artifacts, namely sympathy/bereavement cards. American sympathy cards were collected from the “sympathy” section of a public online catalogue belonging to one of the largest greeting card companies in North America: Hallmark.

We examined the contents of American cards for their emphasis on the following measures: approach and avoidance (Hamamura et al., 2009; Roth & Cohen, 1986), independence and interdependence (Triandis, 1989a; Markus & Kitayama, 1991ab), and level of person centeredness (McCullough et al., 2019). We expected that the messages would be reflective of and intertwined with the cultural values of a given society. Thus, we hypothesized that the cards’ messages would reflect Western/individualistic cultural values in the context of bereavement. Preliminary results from our analysis will be presented at the conference. Findings, as well as future directions, will be discussed from the cultural psychology perspective.

Title: Diary of a Mad Black Woman (Presentation of artwork)

Abstract: From Jola: “I asked a friend based out of Canada to give a journal response on Afrikoko, Calabar chic and Weird confidence and he offered this: “Jola's artwork is characterized by an innovative and versatile use of imagery, textures, doodles, abstract art and mark making. Spontaneity is a key factor that accompanies his creative vision.””

In my unique and compelling hyper realistic pencil portraits I try to capture fragments from my observations in real life so rather than depicting humanity as the way we see it in pure reality, I decided to demonstrate its inner emotion, intricacy and how that plays a role in everyday life. In these works, I emphasize a time when Black women have felt an innate need to leave their individual mark in the world.

About the series: Mad in the Mad Black Woman only emphasizes the grievances of this woman, how equality is not a thing even in the civilised world, how they suffer for the barest minimum and find it difficult to get to the top of the food chain, how they are perceived as the weaker vessel and how they strive to be brave, work hard and turn the opinions around - that's the whole idea of the Mad. The rage which motivates them to push.

They are beautiful, strong, moral, confident, willing to fight for their goals rather than stay silent, they have beautiful natural hair, melanin popping skins, moderately made up, and ready to set on the world as the sky is their starting point. They are the Mad black woman and this is the Diary.

Title: Space Girl and equality (Presentation of artwork)

Abstract: Equality is something that is fundamental and very important to me as a young black woman growing up in a world with well defined fault lines around race, ethnicity, and class.

I believe that as human beings we are all equal no matter the colour of our skin, our gender, or our class. We are the same. Space girl represents that principle.

Each character is painted with different skin tones because they are from different races but that does not make one race inferior or the other race superior to the other. We are one.

My digital painting which I have titled "Space Girl and Equality" represents peace, equality and happiness which is something I strive for in this world battling as it does today with the consequences of the ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine. Everyday, I try to help someone around me or to do something good that will have a positive impact in another person's life because little acts of kindness help to make the world we live in better. The bright colours and flowers in the work represent happiness and joy which is what we need especially now when so many sad things are going on in the world. The cartoon inspired characters are for us to remember the child in us and recall the happiness and carefreeness of childhood. I want people to smile when they look at this, to feel this sort of happiness and peace and to also create their own happy place in their minds. I hope this painting serves its purpose and inspires others to make a change and strive to make the world a better place.

Thank you for this great opportunity to present my artwork.

Student Panel 5

Chair: Tabatha Armstrong

Visual art presentation.

Title: Feminist Manifesto Zine

Abstract: I am applying to the Arts Matter Undergraduate Conference to share a creative work, in the form of a zine. This is a personal feminist manifesto- inspired by Sara Ahmed and the Combahee River Collective, in the form of a zine. The artwork in the zine is a collection of unpolished, messy sketches I did as a 12 to 18-year-old as I was coming into my own as a feminist.

Growing up, I would often aim to understand my life through art rather than through something like journaling. Therefore, sketches included in this zine reflect different snapshots from moments in my life that were pivotal to my self-identifying as a feminist. In making this zine, I paired old art with my current understanding of my own and others’ feminism. This project contains themes of girlhood, friendship, privilege, nature, questioning, and growth. The attached image is a sample from my zine, where I cover the themes of power relations, violence, and ethics.

Title: Educational Barriers to Identity

Abstract: My project focusses on my dynamic perspective of claiming my culture as white woman with mixed indigenous ancestry. My art includes traditions and styles typically associated with indigenous culture. As a French, Blackfoot, and Italian woman, I explore what it means to have intercultural identity stripped away by formal conformities. I do not wish to identify as an indigenous person but value my cultural heritage. This project is a collection of multimedia works over the course of my education. I seek to challenge preconceptions of identity, sexuality, and culture. How does identity and culture change intercultural families and future generations’ perception of self? Can I lay claim to my cultural heritage?

Before receiving formal art lessons, I was privately tutored by a successful and professional indigenous artist. Through this mentorship I was encouraged to create artistic representations of my indigenous ancestors’ family stories and cultural values. While pursuing formal art education, I was confronted with conformities that changed the way I created art. I was asked to make images of people heavier or thinner, more masculine, or feminine; to suit others’ cultural background, gender, and social norms. My indigenous and LGTBQ+2 influence was described as primitive and feminine.

I am disrupting the conformities that push cultureless art by showing the change and progression of my cultural identity. I wish to claim my identity and ask where culture comes from. I ask how intercultural families pass on identity and culture to future generations. My own idea of identity has changed through my art. My art reflects me, an intercultural bisexual woman with a diverse cultural and familial background. My art includes geometric patterns from family textiles, symbolism, stories, and colors from indigenous teachers. How indigenous is indigenous enough? This project demonstrates changes I made and my progression to claim my ancestral culture.

Student Panel 6

Chair: Fernando Aguilar

Title: The Challenges of Social Equality in Higher Education

Abstract: In the history of higher education systems, there have been important challenges to provide equal academic opportunities to all students, regardless of their background. In the literature regarding social inequalities in education, it is argued that higher education is reproducing, rather than reducing social inequalities (Gegel et al. 2015; Roger Brown, 2018; Reimer and Jacob, 2010; Vikki Boliver, 2017). Pierre Bourdieu, one of the prominent theoretical contributors to the sociology of education, has contributed several social theories concerning social inequalities.

In higher education there has been a recurrent focus on ranking and prestige with other universities across the world. This highly influences students’ academic experiences in the academia systems, especially for students from multiple social dynamics. Consequently, this also impacts opportunities available for students to achieve social success. Moreover, when studying the phenomenon of social inequalities, I believe it is important to analyze it with an intersectional framework to explore the power relations in educational institutions. Therefore, my presentation aims to present the relationship between higher education and social inequalities and the benefit of studying these social issues with intersectionality as an analytical tool to challenge the academic system.

Title: Young Adults and Their Parents: The (Mis)understandings That Define Mental Illness

Abstract: Despite growing understandings of young adulthood as a prolonged transition out of adolescence, studies of young adult mental illness often divorce young adults from the family context. This study aims to understand young adult mental illness and their relationship to parents as previous studies have done with adolescents, while also considering factors unique to young adults such as increased independence, familial ambivalence, and negotiations of the parent’s role.

Using a symbolic interactionist framework, I explore and identify meanings of mental illness that are constructed in the young adult-parent relationship as told by seven young adults and nine parents in interviews. Young adults and their parents interact reflexively on their own beliefs and perceptions, and through these interactions, produce new definitions of mental illness. Distance from the parental home allows both parties to communicate more intentionally about mental illness without exposing behavioural symptoms, creating opportunities for better communication but also enforcing stigma in that symptoms are better heard about than seen.

Mental illness also signifies a source of worry, creating opportunities to fail in parental or child responsibilities. This underlies a common tendency for parents to attempt to take action in ‘solving’ the problem, despite young adult preferences for empathetic listening. While their relationships are highly variable, parents and young adults commonly define mental illness as intimate and contentious, a complication to the expected roles of both parties. Despite this, the depth of consideration and understanding these young adults and parents demonstrate for one another reveals sincere positive intentions and a desire to maintain positive relationships.

Understanding that young adults frequently remain meaningfully attached to their parents, future research should attend to their experiences of mental illness in this context. My work complicates binaries of understanding/not understanding and defines mental illness more authentically within an important relationship.

Title: Intersectionality and Equality: Access to Domestic Violence Shelter

Abstract: This paper, a photo essay, uses an intersectional lens to observe how victims of gender-based violence seeking shelter may have their access denied. My paper includes 7 pictures, which I have included below. Building upon feminist theory and praxis, notably Joanne Muzak, Jake Pyne, and Sara Ahmed, I have written this piece from my internship experience working as a crisis intervener at Crossroads for Women (Moncton) during the summer of 2020.

My main areas of analysis are dis/ability, gender, and substance use; these all intersect to impact access in crucial ways. These issues of (in)accessibility are seen in the physical infrastructure of the organization: only one room is wheelchair-accessible. Furthermore, clients are expected to be able to take care of themselves, in terms of physical and mental health. This becomes increasingly difficult with the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic, where the only accessible room of the shelter has been transformed into a quarantine zone, meaning that there is no more “accessible” room.

My second point highlights the cisnormativity and heteronormativity of shelters. While trans and gender non-conforming people are allowed in the shelter, the space might not be welcoming to them. My last point highlights the intersection of other socio-structural issues that impact access: substance use. Crossroads for Women is a mostly dry shelter, meaning that clients cannot use or store drugs on the premises, due to liability. This can promote the unsafe use of drugs, as clients consume drugs in unsupervised areas.

All these examples show how the shelter is dictated by public guidelines and governmental policies. Socio-structural issues have been framed as an individual problem which prevents many people from accessing a safe shelter. I offer some possible avenues in order to move forward, but there is still a long way to go.

Title: Managing Menopause: A Qualitative Analysis of Menopause Discourse

Abstract: Sociologists such as Conrad and Schneider (1980) argue that the medicalization of women’s experiences has both positive and negative consequences. While increased recognition of medical conditions common amongst women is important, overtreatment can result when normal life processes are classified as medical problems. In recent decades, there has been an increasing prevalence and promotion of medical and naturopathic treatment options for the management of menopause symptoms.

These symptoms are commonly understood to arise from fluctuating hormone levels experienced during peri/menopause. In this research, I compared women’s accounts of menopause symptoms in online discussion boards and descriptions of these symptoms in medical literature to uncover how biomedical knowledge is both consistent and inconsistent with social understandings of menopause symptoms and their treatment. In this research I used critical discourse analysis methods to gain an in-depth understanding of the ways in which women come to interpret their personal experience with menopause, while providing special consideration to what they deemed a “menopause symptom” worthy of medical intervention.

My analysis demonstrates that women and medical professionals focus on different aspects of the experience of menopause, leaving many women to seek treatments elsewhere. Findings from this research could inform medical practices to strengthen support services available to women transitioning through menopause.

Title: Montreal’s Jewish Polity and Its Inclusive Institutionalization

Abstract: Public life in Montreal from confederation until Quebec’s quiet revolution was dominated by Catholic influence, particularly within three jurisdictions of the civil service: health care, education, and social services (including welfare, community centers and child protection). However, the quiet revolution bred the seismic expansion of Quebec’s provincial government, which in turn, diminished the cultural primacy of Catholic identity in Montreal and the influence of the Catholic parish in administering public services.

Interestingly, Montreal’s Jewish community displays a contrasting story from the city’s broader religious-political development. The Jewish community has continued to expand its institutional capacity in the aftermath of the quiet revolution with more than 400 community organizations actively serving Jewish Montrealers today. Additionally, Jewish self-identification within the city has seen an average increase in population over the past five decades. This analysis seeks to outline the external and internal processes undergirding Montreal’s Jewish polity-consolidation that have molded a politically autonomous Jewish community in Montreal’s increasingly secular context.

The external environment for which Jewish institutions were forced to adapt in Montreal showcases the influence of Quebec’s minimalist government, stratified patterns of Jewish immigration, and Quebecois cultural anti-Semitism upon the institutional completeness of Montreal’s Jewish community. The internal-inclusive leadership ethic common to the most socially salient Jewish organizations uncovers how Montreal’s Jewish polity has endured despite the widespread social secularization of post quiet revolution Quebec.

Student Panel 7

Chair: Gabrielle Levasseur

Title: MSM Determination: An Examination of the Activity Levels of the People at the Fortress of Louisbourg

Abstract: Musculoskeletal stress markers represent skeletal changes expressed by the increased muscle strain at specific insertion points on the bone. During an individual’s lifetime, there may be increased skeletal changes due to the repetitive use of specific muscles related to occupation or activity. This research focuses on individuals from the 18th century Rochefort Point cemetery at the Fortress of Louisbourg.

This research will help determine the variability in musculoskeletal stress markers across this population, which speaks to the different types of labours present in this 18th-century French colony. Historically, individuals living at Louisbourg were fishermen, sailors, blacksmiths, gardeners and soldiers, occupations that required an extensive amount of physical strength, particularly in the upper limb. For this study, the left and right humeri from 19 adult individuals were examined, specifically robusticity at the insertion point for the deltoideus muscle.

In general, most individuals showed similar robusticity between the left and right humeri; however, in some cases, the right humeri was more defined, suggesting handedness. Middle-aged adults tended to have the most robust skeletal changes, perhaps indicating their extended years of physical labour and/or extended time participating in physically demanding occupations. Interestingly, there was no difference in robusticity between the sexes suggesting a similar level of physical labour between males and females at Louisbourg.

This research is significant because it helps us better understand the types of occupations and their physical requirements at Louisbourg. This research also helps to provide more insight into the lived experience in 18th century Atlantic Canada.

Title: Life and Death in New France: How artifacts can assist in the interpretation of construction, trade, lifestyle, and burials at the 18th Century Fortress of Louisbourg

Abstract: From 1713 to 1758 the Fortress of Louisbourg served as a fortified town for soldiers, fishermen, merchants, and citizens settling primarily from France and looking to begin life in North America. With a population of over 4,000 individuals by 1745, the fortress saw numerous hardships including harsh winters, poor crop production, and was besieged twice by English forces. After the final English occupation period in 1758 the fortress was systematically deconstructed and saw the dispersal of its residents over a 10-year period.

The fortress, left destroyed and in ruins, remained deserted for over 200 years until the Government of Canada undertook a historical reconstruction of the site which remains ongoing to this day. This study will examine the lives of these 18th century individuals through artifact analysis of material goods (i.e., utensils, storage containers, decorative objects), construction materials (e.g., nails), weaponry (i.e., musket balls, gun flints), and grave items (i.e., coffin nails, hinges, buttons, coins) exhumed as part of an ongoing rescue excavation at Louisbourg due to coastal erosion.

Preliminary findings suggest that the individuals who lived within the fortified town were wealthy and in good health despite relatively poor environmental, agricultural, and building conditions. It is evident through artifact analysis of over 10,000 artifacts recovered over the past three field seasons that these individuals possessed the means of necessary survival and prosperity in Louisbourg due to this wealth and relative ease of access to imported goods. This analysis aims to create connections between the people who lived in this fortified town and the items used to construct, produce, and survive in New France.

Title: “It Ought to Make Us Think”: Examining the Impact of the Second World War on Dalhousie University

Abstract: On 10 September 1939, nine days following the German invasion of Poland, Canada declared war on Germany. Canada’s entry into the war caused uncertainty throughout the nation, not least on university campuses. The first post-war-declaration edition of Dalhousie’s student paper, the Dalhousie Gazette, encapsulated the sentiment of students and professors alike as it welcomed Dalhousie’s 904 students to “the first semester of a rather uncertain college term.” Six long years later, the Gazette would herald the dawn of a new era at Dalhousie, announcing a record-breaking enrollment of over 1100 students (compared to 654 the previous year), with “the number of ex-servicemen entering the University exceed[ing] three hundred.” This paper considers the war’s impact on Dalhousie’s administration, military presence, and student life. It argues that in each of these areas, the war increased the emphasis on the value of the wisdom obtained through education, and the responsibility of Dalhousie graduates to use that wisdom to create a better world.

This paper uses as a primary research base two resources: the Dalhousie Gazette, published twenty times per school year, and the Dalhousie yearbook, Pharos. The former gives a students’ viewpoint, and the latter a faculty perspective (in the form of yearly addresses written by each dean). These resources are invaluable to the formation of a more encompassing portrait of Dalhousie during the Second World War. Using these sources to compliment the small amount of secondary literature, the aims of this paper are threefold: to give an overview of the subject, to further a little-considered domain of wartime study, and to offer the interpretation that Dalhousie students and faculty used the war to advance rhetoric of wisdom stemming from education. Educational institutions have historically been tested, challenged, and refined by global struggles. This paper tells Dalhousie’s story.

Title: Vassa's Expedition to the Arctic by Lorenzo Serravalle and Nina Borba

Abstract: Through this video project (carried out under Professor Paul Lovejoy's supervision), we have decided to follow the Arctic expedition's voyage of 1773 commanded by Constantine John Phipps. We depict the thrilling events of this adventure through Gustavus Vassa's eyes as narrated in his autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African (1794).

Gustavus Vassa was an African man from the Igbo region who was abducted and enslaved as a child. He left his mark on history through the hardships, adventures, faith and love he narrated in his autobiography. Vassa's breathtaking and thorough account of his Arctic experience, along with the need to produce historical knowledge of African lives and their individual stories through different mediums and creative processes, led the authors to develop the video Vassa's Expedition to the Arctic.

The video was created following the methodologies of Research-Creation and Knowledge Mobilization to disseminate the narrative and perspective of an African man within a vanguardist expedition. The creators decided to produce the video in a first-person narrative, presenting Vassa as the narrator and protagonist of his own experience, as can be perceived in his book while placing the spectator in "Vassa's shoes" with the use of images and sounds. Furthermore, the idea behind the video on Vassa's Expedition to the Artic also originated from the awareness of the debate regarding the position of several Black characters' plots revolving in the sole discussion against anti-Black racism. Racism is undeniably present in all aspects of Black people's lives in Europe and the Americas. However, it needs to be perceived that Black lives do not revolve entirely and solely on it. Therefore, we decided to take another aspect of Vassa's life, portray him as the narrator, protagonist and hero of his own story in a thrilling and exciting expedition to the Arctic.