Links and Taxonomic Keys


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Online Taxonomic Keys

Recommended References

Benthic Invertebrates

  • Merritt R.W, Cummins K.W, and Berg M.B (eds). 2007. Aquatic insects of North America, 4th edn. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque
  • Oliver, D.R. and M.E. Roussel. 1983. The insects and arachnids of Canada, Part 11. The genera of larval midges of Canada. diptera: chironomidae. Agriculture Canada Publ. 1746. 263 pp.


  • Dodson, S.I., and D.G. Frey. 2001. Cladocera and other Branchiopoda. In Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. Edited by J.H. Thorp and A.P. Covich. Academic Press, San Diego, CA., USA.
  • Hebert, P.D.N. 1995. The Daphnia of North America-an illustrated fauna. CD-ROM. University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
  • Smith, D.G. 2001. Pennak's freshwater invertebrates of the United States. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA. Smith, K., and C.H. Fernando. 1978. A guide to the freshwater calanoid and cyclopoid copepod crustacea of Ontario. University of Waterloo, Department of Biology, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
  • Taylor, D.J., C.R. Ishikane, and R.A. Haney. 2002. The systematics of Holarctic bosminids and a revision that reconciles molecular and morphological evolution. Limnology and Oceanography 47: 1486-1495.