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Historic Sites

Carleton Martello Tower
Dipper Harbour
Eel River
Fort Cumberland
Fort Drummond
Fort Frederick
Fort Howe
Fort Tipperary
Fort Vernon
Fredericton Barracks and Quarters
Fredericton Junction Blockhouse and Military Graves
Grand Falls Fort Carleton
The wreck of the HMS Plumper
Lower Cove Batteries
Odell House
Partridge Island
Piskahegan Blockhouse
Commemorative Plaque for the 104th Regiment of Foot
Presqu'lle Military Post
Quaco Battery
Richibucto Blockhouse
St. Andrews Barracks
St. Andrews Blockhouses
Worden Blockhouse and Battery
Morehouse House

Carleton Martello Tower

Carleton Martello TowerCarleton Martello Tower was one of sixteen similar structures built by the British in North America. Based on a fortified stone tower in Cape Mortella in Corsica that withstood a British attack in 1794, Carleton Martello Tower was designed as a three-storied circular stone tower 15 metres in diameter. It was located to defend the western landward approach to Saint John. The ground floor contained a magazine and firing loopholes. External access to the tower was via a small staircase that led to a door on the second floor. The staircase could be easily destroyed in the event of an emergency to deny entrance. On the second floor there were living quarters and gun ports for three 4-pounder guns. On the top floor, the main gun position was designed to mount two 24-pounder cannon and two 24-pounder carronades.

Carleton Martello TowerConstruction began in 1814 and the tower was not finished before the end of the war and was subsequently never armed. Since then it has been modified according to the threats facing Saint John.

Location:

Located on the Carleton Heights on the western side of the Saint John Harbour. The tower still exists and is now a Parks Canada National Historic Site.

For visitor information please visit: http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nb/carleton/visit.aspx

Sources:
Sarty and Knight, pp. 41-47.

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Dipper Harbour

Description:
Located approximately half way between Saint John and St. Andrews, Dipper Harbour was an important refuge for ships. In order to protect the harbor Captain George Anderson of the Charlotte County Militia garrisoned and fortified a two story log house, adding a lookout tower on top.

Location:
Dipper Harbour, NB. The building no longer exists; currently there is a restaurant on the approximate site.

Sources:
Dallison, p. 44.

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Eel River

Description:
An important crossroads from pre-European times. The Eel River connects the St. John River to the portage to the Penobscot River watershed. In July 1812, the British established a post consisting of 14 soldiers at the mouth of the Eel River. While the strength was later reduced, the post existed throughout the war.

Location:
Near Meductic, NB on Route 165. The exact location is unknown.

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Fort Cumberland

Description:
Originally known as Fort Beauséjour, the fortification became Fort Cumberland when it was captured from the French by the British in 1755. It was successfully defended during the American Revolution when it was besieged by a rebel force commanded of Jonathon Eddy. By 1812, the fort was reported as being dilapidated and untenable. Nonetheless, it was identified as “a position of great consequence” since it lay astride the land communication route from Halifax to New Brunswick and the Canadas. Members of the Westmorland Militia volunteered to conduct repairs and the fort was garrisoned for the duration of the war by successive units.

The fort remains intact today, although the outer works constructed by the British after 1755 are overgrown.

Location:
Located at Au Lac, NB on the Chignecto Peninsula between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Now a National Historic Site.

For visitor information please visit: http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nb/beausejour/index.aspx

Source:
Dallison, pp. 29-30, 35, 37.

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Fort Drummond

Description:
Construction of Fort Drummond began in 1812. It consisted of a blockhouse and a battery featuring one 4-pounder gun and one 6-pounder gun. It was named for Lieutenant Colonel William Drummond of the 104th (New Brunswick) Regiment of Foot.

It was situated on the high-ground west of Fort Frederick and protected the western approaches to Saint John via the Musquash Road. Any opposing forces landing in Manawagonish Bay would have to pass by the fort's position.

Location:
Located on Carleton Heights on the western side of the Saint John Harbour. Currently there is a water tower on the location.

Source:
Sarty and Knight, pp. 41-47.

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Fort Frederick

Fort FrederickDescription:
Fort Frederick was built on the site of the former French Fort Menagoueche on a location long used by the First Nations peoples of the area. It was established to deny an opposing force the ability to land on the western side of the harbour and bombard the harbour or the city itself. In 1812, it was in a dilapidated state and had to be repaired.

It mounted two iron 12-pounder guns and had a small barracks sufficient for 1 officer and 20 men. Due to its location close to the water the fort’s magazine often flooded. Additionally, it could be dominated from the high ground thirteen hundred meters to the west, necessitating further fortification.

Location:
Located on the west bank of the St. John River on the site of the former Harbour Bridge toll plaza in Saint John, NB.

Source:
Dallison, pp 31-33.

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Fort Howe

Fort HoweDescription:
Originally constructed in 1777, Fort Howe consisted of a blockhouse, barracks, and stone magazine. It was sited to protect the inner harbour and to deny access to the St. John River. Despite its formidable location, the fort's works lay mostly in ruins by 1812. The barracks were deemed “miserably old and almost unfit to be occupied.”

It housed soldiers of the 104th Regiment of Foot and later the 8th Regiment of Foot. While the fort secured the stone magazine on its reverse slope, it was no longer an active defensive position in 1812. The fort served more as a headquarters and administrative center.

Location:
Fort Howe was situated on the heights overlooking the interior of Saint John Harbour. A reproduction of the blockhouse exists today.

Source:
Sarty and Knight, pp. 41-47.

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Fort Tipperary

Fort TipperaryDescription:
Fort Tipperary was built in 1808 when war between Great Britain and the United States threatened over the Chesapeake Affair. It was a star-shaped defensive work located on a strategic hill commanding the town of St. Andrews, the harbour, and part of the adjacent country. The original plan was to build a large redoubt, but it was never completed. During the War of 1812, the fort consisted of a blockhouse capable of housing 70 men, barracks, a stone bomb-proof magazine, storehouses, a guard room, and a fuel yard. It was armed with three 18-pounder and six 12-pounder cannon.
The fort has been recommended for designation as a provincial historic site.

Location:
Located on the corner of Elizabeth Street and Prince of Wales Street in St. Andrews, NB. The ramparts of the fort still exist. A private residence has been built on the site.

Source:
Dallison, pp. 45-46.

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Fort Vernon

Description:

Fort VernonFort Vernon was built by Loyalist Moses Vernon in response to the American threat during the War of 1812. It was constructed in June 1812 on the south side of the tidal basin of the Magaguadavic River, within the town limits of St. George. After the war, it fell into disrepair and the remains were dismantled in 1866. Two cannons, most likely 4-pounders, emblazoned with what appears to be the monogram of King George III, indicating that they were manufactured sometime between 1760 and 1820, were recovered from a field at the bottom of Fort Hill in Saint George. Oral history suggests they were used to arm Fort Vernon and later fortifications in the town.

Location:
The exact location of Fort Vernon is unknown; however, it is believed to have been on the site of a gravel pit off Letete Rd., Saint George, NB. Two Cannon from the era, thought to have been used at Fort Vernon are located at the St. George Legion, 4 New St., Saint George, NB.

Source:
Dallison, pp. 40, 44.

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Fredericton Barracks and Quarters

Description:
Fredericton, the capital of New Brunswick, housed the province’s principal military garrison in the Military Compound within the blocks between Regent St. and York St. The original wooden Officers Quarters burned in 1815 and was replaced by a stone structure. The Soldiers’ Barracks was replaced with a stone structure in 1827. A bomb proof magazine large enough to hold 100 barrels of powder also existed during the War of 1812; however, its location is unknown. It was from the Officers’ Square parade ground that the 104th Regiment of Foot formed up to commence their epic march to Upper Canada on 16 February 1813.

The modern Department of National Defence Armoury on Carleton St. housing the headquarters of the 1st Battalion, Royal New Brunswick Regiment exists within the precinct. 1 RNBR perpetuates the battle honours of the 104th Regiment of Foot.

Location:
Both buildings are located on Queen St, Fredericton, NB. Now National Historic Sites, the Fredericton Region Museum currently occupies the Officers’ Quarters.

Source:
Dallison, pp. 29-31.

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Fredericton Junction Blockhouse and Military Graves

Description:
Blockhouses were built during the War of 1812 to protect the St. Andrews to St. John River route. At Fredericton Junction (then known as Hartt's Mills) a blockhouse was built to guard the Oromocto River, the last leg of the route. Initially garrisoned by the 104th Regiment, the blockhouse was later garrisoned by the militia after the 104th’s departure to the Upper Canadian theatre. The blockhouse was vacated at the end of the war. A house was built on the site in 1922.

Four graves are found in the Gladstone Cemetery on Prides Landing Road in Fredericton Junction. They are believed to be those of members of the blockhouse garrison who died there while on duty during the War of 1812. The name Richard Jacques can be faintly read on one of the headstones.

Location:
Blockhouse is located in Fredericton Junction, NB on Route 101.

Source:
Dallison, p. 37.

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Grand Falls/Fort Carleton

Description:

Fort Carleton/Grand Falls BarracksIn order to secure the vital lines of communication between Halifax and Quebec City up the St. John River Valley, the first lieutenant governor of New Brunswick, Thomas Carleton, established a military post at Grand Falls in 1790. In May 1791, Lieutenant Dugald Campbell visited the post and in a letter asked Governor Carleton if it could be called "Fort Carleton." The military post was never a fortified position, but consisted originally of a half dozen squared log buildings alongside the portage that crossed the neck of land separating the upper and lower basins on the St. John River.

In the summer of 1812, the garrison consisted of Sergeant Bishop and three soldiers from the 104th Regiment. The 104th Regiment of Foot passed through on their epic march to Upper Canada. Lieutenant John Le Couteur described the falls in his journal:

After dinner most of the officers went to see the falls, it presented a magnificent and curious  spectacle. In summer it is 84 feet high and 900 feet in width but it was now greatly reduced, by  the quantity of ice which environed it. The spray having frozen as it rose had gradually  condensed itself that it had joined and formed a splendid, irregular, fantastic arch, of surprising  brilliancy and lightness, in all the rugged and mixed varieties of form, which frost gives to  falling water, suddenly arrested by congelation....The scene called to mind the idea of an  enchanted palace of glass, fitter for men to gaze on than inhabit, which was strictly true for  desolation reigned around; no beast, bird or even insect cheered the sight or enlivened the ear,  the only sound that disturbed the icy deathlike stillness around was the relentless roaring river,  rushing impatiently through its restricted and fringed bed of ice....

After the war the post was abandoned once local military settlements were established and government support ended. The Michaud family occupied the old Commissary Storehouse and paid a small rent for it. During the Maine/New Brunswick border dispute in 1837, Grand Falls was a strategic location.

It is believed locally that the old Mulherin Grocery Store, now the Senechale Furniture Company, at the corner of Court and Broadway Streets is the last surviving part of the post, most likely the log barracks. The unusually wide Broadway Street was the original parade ground. The lower portage around the falls remains, but is overgrown.

Location:

Fort Carleton was located in Grand Falls / Grand Sault, NB. The only surviving section is a log building at the corner of Court and Broadway Streets. A commemorative plaque is found on Broadway St. adjacent to the cenotaph.

Source:
Campbell, pp. 50, 97, 101.

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The wreck of the HMS Plumper

Description:

In 1812, HMS Plumper, a gun brig commanded by Lieutenant Josias Bray, had successfully captured three small American privateers in the Bay of Fundy. However, in a raging snowstorm, at 0400 hours on the morning of 5 December 1812, en route to Saint John from Halifax with about 75 crew and passengers aboard, Plumper hit a ledge of rock off Dipper Harbour, since named Plumper Rock, and sank. Although Bray was among the survivors, forty-two others perished. Of particular note was that Plumper carried at least 36,000 pounds sterling in gold and silver specie to pay the British garrison. While the British records show that about half of the coinage was recovered, local accounts concerning the recovery of the gold are numerous and varied. Records do show that the British authorities recovered about half the money immediately after the sinking.
The wreck is a protected provincial historic site.

A carronade from the ship, most likely a 24-pounder used as a bow chaser, is now part of the collections of the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John, NB.
 
Location:
The wreck site is at Plumper Rock between Dipper Harbour and Point Lepreau. The exact coordinates are 45°04'21" North and 66°26'33" West.

Sources:
Smith, pp. 44-46; and Dallison, pp. 65-66.  

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Lower Cove Batteries

Description:

Lowercove batteriesThe events of the American Revolution made it clear that the existing fortifications at Fort Howe and Fort Frederick were insufficient to defend the harbor. In 1793, in order to strengthen the overall defense, several batteries were constructed along the lower cove to command the entrance to the harbour. Initially temporary, these emplacements were improved and by the outbreak of the War of 1812 were reported as being in a good state of repair. Dorchester Battery consisted of two 18-pounders and an 8-inch howitzer in addition to a blockhouse armed with a 4-pounder to cover the land approaches to the battery. Mortar Battery 200 metres from Dorchester consisted of three 24-pounders, two 8 inch mortars, and an 8-inch howitzer. The position had a furnace for heating shot, a potent counter to the wooden ships of the era. Graveyard Battery, located 140 metres north of Mortar Battery, consisted of three 24-pounders.  Prince Edward Battery was at water level 400 metres north from Graveyard and mounted five 18-pounders. While Prince Edward Battery provided excellent crossfire with Graveyard Battery, its position was cramped by adjacent private property, whose owners refused to allow the defensive works to encroach on their property.

Location:
None of the batteries exist today due to development in the intervening time. Despite changes to the water line the former locations are known. Dorchester Battery was located at the end of Carmarthan St. in what is now a field. Mortar Battery was located at the end of Sydney St. Graveyard Battery was located between Broadview Ave. and Vulcan St. Prince Edward Battery was located at the corner of Prince William St. and St. James St.

Sources:
Sarty and Knight, pp. 41-47.

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Odell House

Description:
The home of Jonathan Odell, a prominent New Brunswick loyalist and the first provincial secretary. Odell was instrumental in securing non-aggression treaties with local First Nations tribes at the outset of the War of 1812. A local legend has it that the planning for the 104th Regiment of Foot's epic march to Upper Canada was carried out in the house.

Location:
Found at 808 Brunswick St., Fredericton, NB. Now a private residence.

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Partridge Island

Description:
Originally fortified in 1800, the emplacements on Partridge Island originally consisted of a signal station, a 12-pounder mounted on a platform, and a barracks. Improvements were made in the lead up to the War of 1812. At the outbreak of the war six 24-pounders protected by earthen parapets were mounted on the island, which dominated both the western and eastern entrances to the harbour. In order to protect the island itself the lighthouse was reinforced and could garrison 60 men. In 1813, an additional nine gun platform, blockhouse, and magazine were constructed; however, the actual armament was less than intended since the ship carrying the cannon, HMS Diligence, ran aground and was captured by the Americans. The defenses of the island were never tested.

Location:
Partridge Island is located in Saint John Harbour. It is currently inaccessible.

Source:
Dallison, pp. 31-34.

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Piskahegan Blockhouse

Description:
Built astride the road linking St. Andrews to Fredericton to protect this important line of communications, this military blockhouse stood at Piskahegan, 32 miles from St. Andrews and 43 miles from Fredericton. The blockhouse was constructed at the end of the Pomeroy Bridge on the east bank of the Magaguadavic River south of the road on a small hill with a commanding view of the surrounding area. It was completed on June 18, 1812. There was a formal inspection of the site conducted on 21 November 1814.

Local history states that blacksmith David Stewart set up business in the area to service the needs of the blockhouse garrison. The blockhouse stood for several years after 1814 and was recorded as being occupied in February 1819 by Mary Pomeroy.

Location:
Blockhouse built on the Magaguadavic River and Kendron Stream at Pomeroy Bridge on Route 770.

Source:
Dallison, p. 37.

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Commemorative Plaque for the 104th Regiment of Foot

Description: 
Late in 1812 the British detected a major buildup of American troops, naval ships, and supplies at Sackets Harbour, New York. They feared an American attack on Upper Canada before the ice had left the St Lawrence and reinforcement could arrive. It was decided to take the desperate measure of moving reinforcements overland from New Brunswick in the dead of winter on snowshoes. On 16 February 1813, six companies of the 104th Regiment left Fredericton on a challenging 800 mile trek. The Regiment arrived in Quebec City on March 15, and, after a period of garrison duty there, they moved on to Kingston, Ontario, arriving in time to participate in an assault on the American base at Sackets Harbor. Later the Regiment served with distinction in the Niagara peninsula participating in the Battle of Lundy's Lane and the Siege of Fort Erie, earning the Battle Honour NIAGARA. The Regiment was disbanded after the war in 1817. The Royal New Brunswick Regiment perpetuates the battle honours of the 104th Regiment.
In September 1935, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada erected a monument commemorating the 104th at the intersection of Brunswick and Smythe Streets. The current plaque was placed on the Soldiers’ Barracks in 1963 after the original monument was removed.

Location:
Located on the Queen St. side of the Soldiers’ Barracks, Fredericton, NB.

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Presqu'Ile Military Post

Description:
To secure the vital St. John River route from the growing threat and claims by the United States, the lieutenant governor of New Brunswick, Thomas Carleton, directed that two British military posts be established in the valley. The largest one was built at the Mouth of Presqu' Ile River in 1790. It occupied five acres, with a blockhouse, barracks for 96 soldiers, officers’ quarters for 12, a guardhouse, stables, and stores. Fort Presqu'Ile was abandoned in 1823.
The only evidence remaining of the site is the cemetery. There is a provincial historic marker on the side of the road at the foot of the height of land upon which the military post stood.

Location:
The post was located near Simonds, NB on Route 103.

Source:
Dallison, p. 30.

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Quaco Battery

Description:
Faced with the possibility of American raids, the citizens of St. Martins built a small battery of two 4-pounders to protect the shipyards there. Very little is known beyond the fact of its existence.

Location:
The battery was located in St. Martins, NB.

Source:
Dallison, p. 44.

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Richibucto Blockhouse

Description:
During the War of 1812, the coastal areas of the county were exposed to American sea-borne attack. Recognizing the importance of fishing and timber resources along the Richibucto River Major Jacob Kollock, commanding officer of the 2nd Battalion of the Northumberland County Militia, persuaded the inhabitants to build a blockhouse with their own funds to protect the harbour on land donated by a loyalist, Jacob Powell.

Location:
A blockhouse was built in Richibucto, NB, although its exact location is unknown.

Source:
Dallison, p. 43.

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St. Andrews Barracks

Description:
In August 1813, a request was made for 12-15 acres of land for a barracks and additional fortifications in St. Andrews. Glebe land was conferred in 1814 for fortifications, although it is not known if they were built.

Location: Unknown

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St. Andrews Blockhouses

Description:
Identified as a port “of the first importance,” St. Andrews was vulnerable to attack due to its proximity to the United States. Acting on recommendations and not willing to wait for government funding, private citizens of St. Andrew's led by Robert Pagan and Christopher Scott built three blockhouses to protect the harbour and town. They built one at each entrance of the harbour. Besides mounting a 4-pounder cannon in the blockhouse itself, each position had a battery of three 18-pounders. A third blockhouse was built upriver from the harbour at Joe's Point. The position mounted a 24-pounder that was capable of reaching the American shore across the St. Croix River, thereby controlling access to the river.

Locations:
The West Blockhouse and battery is located on Joe's Point Rd. and is a National Historic Site.  The East Blockhouse, which no longer exists, was located on the site of the lighthouse at the end of Patrick St. Only the foundation of the Joe's Point Blockhouse still exists, where it forms the tee box for the Twelfth Hole of the Algonquin Golf Course.

For visitor information visit:  http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nb/standrews/natcul.aspx

Source:
Dallison, pp. 44-45.

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Worden Blockhouse and Battery


Description:
On the recommendation of Captain Gustavus Nicolls, Royal Engineers, a fortification was built on a commanding position on the east bank of the St John River where the river is very narrow and provides an extensive view up and down the valley. The position included a blockhouse about 200 feet above the water with a magazine in the rear and a battery of three 18-pounders commanding the river. By 1825, a military survey reported the fortification in a state of ruin.

Location:
The position was located near Tenants Cove, NB, presently on private property.

Source:
Dallison, pp. 35, 37.

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Morehouse House

Description:
In the winter of 1813, six companies of the 104th Regiment of Foot were ordered to march from Fredericton to Upper Canada. For the first portion of their trek the 104th were able to sleep in the houses and barns of settlers along the St. John River. One of the first stops was at the home of Captain Daniel Morehouse, a Loyalist settler in Queensbury New Brunswick. As the march progressed the settlements thinned and the 104th were forced to construct their own huts each evening after marching.

Location: The house was originally located in Queensbury and was moved to Kings Landing Historical Settlement in Upper Kingsclear.

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