Huining Xiao



Chemical Engineering

Head Hall E46B

1 506 453 3532

Educational background

  • Ph. D. (1994) Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Canada
  • M. Eng./B. Eng. (1987 /1982), Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Chemical Technology, China

Academic experience

Professor (7/2005 – present); Associate Professor (8/2001 – 6/2005): Department of Chemical Engineering & Limerick Pulp & Paper Centre, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton Canada.

Lecturer (1/1996 – 8/2001): Department of Paper Science, University of Manchester Ins. of Sci. & Tech. (UMIST), Manchester UK.

Post Doctoral Fellow (11/1994 - 12/1995): McMaster Centre for Pulp and Paper Research, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton Canada.

Research interests

  • Polymer Synthesis & Processing And Colloid Science
    • Biodegradable polymers for packaging materials;
    • Syntheses of functional polymers: antimicrobial polymers; polymeric micro- or nanoparticles; hyperbranched or star polymers as drug carriers and for DNA delivery;
    • Temperature or pH responsive polymers: smart hydrogels; characterization using a pico-force atomic force microscope (AFM); layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes.
    • Fundamentals of flocculation induced by nanoparticles/polymer systems.
    • Polymer modifications for nanocomposites, biocomposites; Microporous and mesoporous materials as absorbents.
  • Pulp & Paper Science And Technology
    • Polymer-modified cellulose fibres for the value-added paper products or enhancing the performance of papers. Responsive or smart polymers for surface modification of fibres.
    • Hydrophobic modification of cellulose fibre networks or paper for green packaging.
    • Modification of cellulose fibres; rendering cellulose fibres and paper products antimicrobial or hydrophobic via polymer grafting and modified micro- or nanocapsules.
    • Fillers or fines retention induced by polymers and novel micro or nano-particle retention systems. Strength additives for papermaking.

Research-related responsibilities

Member of Board of Directors of SENTINEL – Bioactive Paper (NSERC NCE – Networks of Centres of Excellence) (2008 – ); and Theme Leader (Surface Science) of SENTINEL (2009 - 2010) of SENTINEL and Patholgen Deactivation Theme (2010 - present)/

Theme Leader (Chemical Modification of Fibres) of Innovative Green Wood Fibre Products Networks – (NSERC Strategic Network) Canada (1. 2010 - present)

Member of Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Grant Selection Committee (GSC) 1151 (Chem & Metallurgy Eng) (10.2007 – 3, 2010 ) and (12/2011 – 2/2012)

Selected publications

Papers published in peer-reviewed journals from 2004-2011

  1. Li S, Xiao M, Zheng A, Xiao* H. “Cellulose Microfibrils Grafted with PBA via Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization for Biocomposite Reinforcement”, Biomacromolecules. Vol. 12: 3305-3312(2011).
  2. Pedram Fatehi, Huining Xiao, Theo G.M. van de Ven “Quantitative Analysis of Cationic Poly(vinyl alcohol) Diffusion into the Hairy Structure of Cellulose Fiber Pores: Charge Density Effect”, Langmuir  Vol. 27: 13489–13496(2011).
  3. Qian, LY; Xiao*, HN; Zhao, GL; He, BH, “Synthesis of Modified Guanidine-Based Polymers and their Antimicrobial Activities Revealed by AFM and CLSM”, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES  Vol 3(6): 1895-1901(2011).
  4. Fatehi* P, Singh R, Ziaee Z, Xiao H, Ni, Y. “Preparation and characterization of cationic poly vinyl alcohol with a low degree of substitution”, EUROPEAN POLYMER J., Vol. 47(5): 997-1004(2011).
  5. HQ Shi*, P Fatehi*, Y Ni, H Xiao, “A combined PEO flocculation and acidification treatment of lignin removal in prehydrolysis liquor from Dissolving Pulp mill”, Bioresource Technology, Vol 102(8): 5177-5182(2011).
  6. Xiao MM, Li SZ, Chanklin W, Zheng AN, Xiao* H, “Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of butyl acrylate on cellulose microfibrils”, CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS   Vol. 83(2): 512-519(2011).
  7. Qinglin Huang, Mladen Eic*, Huining Xiao, Serge Kaliaguine “Characterization of the diffusion path in micro- and meso-porous materials from ZLC analysis”, Adsorption J of Internal Adsorption Soc. Vol. 16(6): 531-539 (2010).
  8. Fatehi P*, Outhouse KC, Xiao HN, Ni YH, “Debonding Performance of Various Cationic Surfactants on Networks Made of Bleached Kraft Fibers”, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol. 49(22): 11402-11407 (2010).
  9. P. Fatehi, T. McArthur, H. Xiao*, Y. Ni, “Improving the strength of old corrugated container board using a dry strength additive”, Appita J, Vol 63(5): 364-369(2010).
  10. Sang YZ, Qian LY, He BH, Xiao H*, “The adsorption of Cationic PVA on cellulose fibres and its effect with polyelectrolyte complex on paper strength” APPITA J.  Vol 63(4): 294-299 (2010).
  11. P. Fatehi*, X. Liu, Y. Ni, H. Xiao, “Interaction of cationic modified poly vinyl alcohol with high yield pulps”, Cellulose, 17:1021–1031(2010).
  12. Wei TY, Pan* YF, Lu GQ, Tong ZF, Xiao* HN, “Activated Clay Prepared by Waste Acid Recycling: Technology and Mechanism”, ENVIRONMENTAL ENG SCIENCE  Vol 27(6): 531-535(2010).
  13. Zhang JA, Huang H, Guan Y, A. Zheng*, H. Xiao, “Synthesis and Characterization of Polystyrene Oligomers with Several Pendent Epoxy Groups”, J APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE   117: 2566-2574(2010).
  14. X. Liu, P. Fatehi, Y. Ni, H. Xiao, “Using cationic poly vinyl alcohol (C-PVA) to improve the strength properties of papers containing high-yield pulp (HYP)”, Holzforschung, 64(5): 563-569(2010).
  15. Zainab Ziaee, Liying Qian, Yong Guan, Pedram Fatehi, Huining Xiao*, “Antimicrobial/ Antimold Polymer-Grafted Starches for Recycled Cellulose Fibers”, J Biomaterials Sci: Polymer Ed. 21, 1359–1370(2010).
  16. P. Fatehi, R. Kititerakun, Y. Ni, H. Xiao*, “Synergy of CMC and chitosan complex on enhancing the paper properties”, Carbohydrate Polymers 80 (2010) 208–214.
  17. Z. Guo, X. Chen, X. Zhang, J. Xin, J. Li*, H. Xiao*, “Effective syntheses of per-2,3-di- and per-3-O-chloroacetyl--cyclodextrins”, Tetrahedron Letters 51 (2010) 2351–2353.
  18. Fatehi P, Xiao* HN, “Effect of cationic PVA characteristics on fiber and paper properties at saturation level of polymer adsorption”, CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS  Vol 79(2): 423-428 (2010).
  19. Zhang J, Huang H, Wei DF, Hu FZ, Zheng* AN, Xiao HN. “Further Studies on the Anionic Copolymerization of Styrene and Glycidyl Methacrylate in Toluene”, J Macromol. Sci. Part A-Pure & Appl. Chem. Vol 47(6): 626-632(2010).
  20. J Li, Z Guo,  J Xin, G Zhao, H Xiao*, “21-Arm star polymers with different cationic groups based on cyclodextrin core for DNA delivery”, Carbohydrate Polymers 79:277–283(2010).
  21. Fatehi P, Tutus A, Ni YH, Xiao HN, “Influence of Soda-Air-AQ Pulping of Straw on Silica Precipitation, Paper Strength, and Performance of CPVA as a Dry Strength Additive”, Ind. & Eng Chem Res. V. 48(23): 10190-10195(2009).
  22. Tan ZL, Xiao HN, Zhang RD, “Potential to use mesoporous carbon as catalyst support for hydrodesulfurization”, NEW CARBON MATERIALS, V. 24(4): 333-342(2009).
  23. Fatehi, Pedram; Ward, Jeffery; Xiao, Huining, “Treatment of Fractionated Fibers with Various Cationic-Modified Poly Vinyl Alcohols and its Impact on Paper Properties”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 48(23), 10485–10490(2009).
  24. Li SZ, Xiao MM, Wei DF, Xiao HN, Hu FZ, Zheng A, “The melt grafting preparation and rheological characterization of long chain branching polypropylene”, POLYMER, v.50(25), 6121-6128(2009).
  25. Pedram Fatehi, Bryce Macmillan, Zainab Ziaee, Huining Xiao, “Qualitative Characterization of the Diffusion of Cationic-Modified PVA into the Cellulose Fiber Pores”, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 348, 59–63(2009).
  26. Qian L, Guan Y, Ziaee Z, He B, Zheng A, Xiao H, “Rendering cellulose fibers antimicrobial using cationic beta-cyclodextrin-based polymers included with antibiotics”, CELLULOSE   v.16(2): 309-317(2009).
  27. Fatehi, P., H. Xiao, “Cationic Poly(vinyl alcohol) as a Dry Strength Additive for Bleached Sfulfite Pulps”, J Pulp & Paper Sci. v.35(1), 1-4(2009).
  28. S. Li, M. Xiao, S. Zheng, H. Xiao, Y. Guan, A. Zheng, “The characterization of rheological properties of melt grafting polypropylene for foaming”, Polymer Bulletin,  v.63(1): 111-123(2009).
  29. Fatehi P, Ates S, Ward JE, Ni YH, Xiao HN “Impact of cationic polyvinyl alcohol on properties of papers made from two different pulps”, Appita J, v.62(4): 303-307(2009).
  30. Pedram Fatehi, Liying Qian, Rattana Kititerakun, Thirasak Rirksomboon, and Huining Xiao “Complex formation of modified chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose and its impact on paper properties”, TAPPI Journal, 8(6): 29-35(2009).
  31. Yizhou Sang, Huining Xiao, “Preparation and application of cationic cellulose fibers modified by in situ grafting of cationic PVA”, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol 335(1-3), 121-127(2009). Published: March 5, 2009. ELSEVIER, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS
  32. Eun Seok Gil, Jianshu Li, Huining Xiao and Tao Lu Lowe, “Quaternary Ammonium b-Cyclodextrin Nanoparticles for Enhancing Doxorubicin Permeability across the In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier”, Biomacromolecules.  Vol. 10, 505–516(2009).
  33. Fatehi P, Outhouse K, Xiao HN, “Cationic Alkoxylated Amine Surfactant as a Debonding Agent for Papers Made of Sulfite-Bleached Fibers”, IND. & ENG CHEMISTRY RES.  Vol: 48 (2): 749-754(2009).
  34. P. Fatehi, A. Tutus, H. Xiao, “Cationic-modified PVA as a dry strength additive for rice straw fibers”, Bioresource Technology 100: 749–755(2009).
  35. Pan YF, Xiao* HN (Xiao, Huining), Zhao GL, He BH, “Synthesis and Characterization of Temperature-Responsive Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Based Copolymers”, J APPLIED POLYMER SCI. Vol: 110(5): 2698-2703 (2008).
  36. Y. P. Li, G. H. Huang, and H. N. Xiao, “Municipal Solid Waste Management under Uncertainty: An Interval-Fuzzy Two-Stage Stochastic Programming Approach”, J of Environmental Informatics 12(2) 96-104 (2008)
  37. Pedram Fatehi and Huining Xiao, “The influence of charge density and molecular weight of cationic poly (vinyl alcohol) on paper properties”, Nordic Pulp and Paper Research J. 23(2): 285-291(2008).
  38. Yizhou Sang and Huining Xiao, “Clay flocculation improved by cationic poly(vinyl alcohol)/anionic polymer dual-component system”, J Colloid and Interface Sci., 326: 420–425 (2008).
  39. Z. Wang, H. Xiao, “Nanocomposites: Recent Development and Potential Automotive Applications”, SAE Int. J. Mater. Manuf, 1(1): 631-640(2008). 
  40. Pedram Fatehi, Huining Xiao, “Adsorption characteristics of cationic-modified poly (vinyl alcohol) on cellulose fibers–A qualitative analysis”, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, 327: 127–133(2008).
  41. Wenxia Liu, Hua Liu, Meiyan Chen and Huining Xiao, “Sizing performance and molecular orientation of dispersed cationic rosin-ester”, Appita Journal. 61(5): 387-390(2008).
  42. Huang L, Huang QL, Xiao* HN, Eic M, “Al-MCM-48 as a potential hydrotreating catalyst support: II -- Diffusion property study”, Micro & Mesoporous Materials, 114(1-3): 121-128(2008).
  43. Guan Y, Qian L, Xiao H, and A. Zheng. “Preparation of novel antimicrobial-modified starch and its adsorption on cellulose fibers: Part I. Optimization of synthetic conditions and antimicrobial activities”, CELLULOSE, 15(4): 609-618(2008).
  44. Guan Y, Qian L, Xiao H, A. Zheng and B. He. “Synthesis of a novel antimicrobial-modified starch and its adsorption on cellulose fibers: part II - adsorption behaviors of cationic starch on cellulose fibers”, CELLULOSE, 15(4): 619-629(2008).
  45. Zhou W, Dong M, Liu Q, Xiao H., “Experimental investigation of surfactant partition in heavy oil/water/sand systems”, Petroleum Sci & Tech. 26(9):   1036-1046(2008).
  46. Qian L, Guan Y, Xiao H, “Preparation and characterization of inclusion complexes of a cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymer with butylparaben or triclosan”, Int. J Pharmaceutics, 357(1-2): 244-251(2008).
  47. Liying Qian, Yong Guan, Beihai He, Huining Xiao, “Modified guanidine polymers: Synthesis and antimicrobial mechanism revealed by AFM”, Polymer 49: 2471–2475 (2008).
  48. Ling Huang, Qinlin Huang, Huining Xiao, Mladen Eic, “ Al-MCM-48 as a potential hydrotreating catalyst support: I – Synthesis and adsorption study”, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 111: 404–410(2008).
  49. Hui Huang, Jian Zhang, Dafu Wei, Fuzeng Hu, Anna Zheng  and Huining Xiao, “Studies on the synthesis and the reaction mechanism of epoxy-terminated polystyrene oligomer”, POLYMER BULLETIN, 60(4): 477-486(2008).
  50. Tan H, Xiao HN, “Synthesis and antimicrobial characterization of novel L-lysine gemini surfactants pended with reactive groups”, TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, 49(11): 1759-1761(2008).
  51. Huang YF, Wang GQ, Huang GH, Xiao HN, Chakma A, “IPCS: An integrated process control system for enhanced in-situ bioremediation”, ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION,  151(3): 460-469(2008).
  52. Liying Qian, Yong Guan, Beihai He, Huining Xiao, “Synergy of wet strength and antimicrobial activity of cellulose paper induced by a novel polymer complex”, Materials Letters, 62: 3610-3612(2008).
  53. Lu H, Wei D, Xiao H, Zheng A, “Synthesis and characterization of a thermal sensitive polyelectrolyte based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and its thermal sensitive properties”, ACTA POLYMERICA SINICA, 12: 1161-1167(2007).
  54. Guan Y, Qian LY, Xiao HN, “Novel anti-microbial host-guest complexes based on cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymers and triclosan/butylparaben”, MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, 28(23): 2244-2248(2007).
  55. Jain, Vaibhav Xiao, Huining; Ni, Yonghao, “Grafting of poly(methyl acrylate) onto sulfite pulp fibers and its effect on water absorbance”, J Applied Polymer Science, 105(6): 3195-3203(2007).
  56. Y. Guan, H. Xiao and Z. Zheng, “Antimicrobial-Modified Sulfite Pulps Prepared by In-situ Copolymerization”, Carbohydrate Polymers, 69 (4): 688-696 JUL 2 2007.
  57. Jinlan Ju, Huining Xiao, Zisheng Zhang, “Synthesis of 3-Dimensionally mesoporous Silica Using a Di-block Copolymer Template” J Materials Science, 42 (12): 4461-4469(2007).
  58. Hong Lu, Anna Zheng, Huining Xiao, “Properties of a novel thermal sensitive polymer based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and its layer-by-layer assembly”, Polym. Adv. Technol. Vol. 18(5), 335–345 (2007).
  59. Y. F. Huang, G. H. Huang, H. N. Xiao, A. Chakma, and Q. G. Lin, "Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Sites through Simulation of a DPVE-Aided Cleanup Process: Part 2. Remediation Design", Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 29(4), 367-387 (2007).
  60. Hong Lu, Hailun Wang, Anna Zheng, Huining Xiao, “Hybrid Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) /Silica Nanocomposites Prepared by In-situ Polymerization" Polymer Composites, Vol. 28, 42-46 (2007).
  61. Ling Huang, Qinglin Huang, Huining Xiao, Mladen Eić, “Effect of Cationic Tempate on the Adsorption of Aromatic Compounds in MCM-41”, Microporous & Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 98, 330-338 (2007).
  62. Jianshu Li, Poly R. Modak, Huining Xiao, “Novel flocculation system based on 21 arms cationic star polymer”, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. V. 289(1-3), 172-178(2006).
  63. L. Zheng, H. Xiao and Y. Ni, “Application and Characterization of Cationic Pulp Prepared by In-situ Copolymerization”, J Pulp & Paper Sci Vol.32, 145-149(2006).
  64. Pan YF, Zheng A, Xiao HN, Hu FZ, “Preparation and characterization of rare earth complex europium(3+)-acrylate-1,10-phenanthroline grafted onto polypropylene” J Appl. Polymer Sci. 102 (2): 1547-1552(2006).
  65. Liu CS, Wei DF, Zheng A, Li Y, Xiao HN, “Improving foamability of polypropylene by grafting modification” J Applied Polym Sci. 101 (6): 4114-4123(2006).
  66. Huang GH, Huang YF, Wang GQ, Xiao HN “Development of a forecasting system for supporting remediation design and process control based on NAPL-biodegradation simulation and stepwise-cluster analysis”, Water Resources Research, 42 (6): Art. No. W06413 JUN 21 2006.
  67. Ling Huang, Huining Xiao and Yonghao Ni, “Cationic-modified microporous zeolites/anionic polymer system for enhancing the removal of DCS”, Separation and Purification Tech.  Vol. 49, 264–270(2006).
  68. Pan YF, Zheng A, Hu FZ, Xiao HN, “Copolymers of styrene with a quaternary europium complex” J Appl. Polymer Sci. 100 (2): 1506-1510(2006).
  69. Peng XH, Shen JR, Xiao HN, “Preparation and retention of poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted cationic polyacrylamide microparticles”,  J Applied Polym Sci. 101 (1): 359-363(2006).
  70. Yuanfeng Pang, Anna Zheng, Huining Xiao, Fuzeng Hu, “Study on PP grafted with ULP containing rare earth”, Materials Letters 60 (11): 1383-1386(2006).
  71. Ningjing Wu, Likan Huang, Anna Zheng, Huining Xiao, “Surface Properties of Block and Graft Polystyrene-Polydimethylsiloxane Copolymers”, J of Appl. Polym Sci. V. 99, 2936-2942(2006).
  72. Yu Zhang, Xianlong Jiang, Yong Guan, Anna Zheng, Huining Xiao, “Crystallization Behaviors of amino-terminated polyurethane (ATPU)-grafted polypropylene”, Polymer Bulletin Vol. 56, 179 – 191(2006).
  73. Yuanfeng Pang, Anna Zheng, Fuzeng Hu, Huining Xiao, “Copolymer of Styrene with a Quaternary Europium Complex” J of Appl. Polym Sci. Vol. 100, 1506-1510(2006).
  74. Samya El-Sherbiny, Huining Xiao, “Surface Characteristics of the Coated Paper Improved by Plastic Pigments and Synthetic Thickeners” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Vol. 44, 9875-9883(2005).
  75. Jianshu Li, Huining Xiao, Young Shin Kim and Tao Lu Lowe, “Synthesis of water-soluble cationic polymers with star-like structure based on cyclodextrin core via ATRP”, J. Polym Sci. Poly. Chem Vol.43, 6345-6354(2005).
  76. Karademir, Y.S. Chew, R. W. Hoyland and H. Xiao, “Influence of Fillers on Sizing Efficiency and Hydrolysis of Alkyl Ketene Dimer”, Canadian J. Chem. Eng. Vol. 83, 603-607(2005).
  77. Jianshu Li and Huining Xiao, “An efficient synthetic-route to prepare [2,3,6-tri-O-(2-bromo-2-methylpropionyl]-β-cyclodextrin”, Tetrahedron Letter, Vol 46, 2227-2229(2005).
  78. Norlito Cezar and Huining Xiao, “Novel retention systems based on (2,3-epoxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride-modified silica nanoparticle and anionic polymer”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 44, 539-545(2005).
  79. Tim Leslie, Hunning Xiao, Mingzhe Dong, “Taylor-Modified Starch/Cyclodextrin-Based Polymers for Use in Tertiary Oil Recovery”, J Petroleum Sci. & Eng., Vol. 46, 225-232(2005).
  80. S. El-Sherbiny, H. Xiao, “Characteristics of clay and GCC pigment coatings containing synthetic polymer thickeners” Appita Journal, Vol 58, no.2, 116-121(2005).
  81. Huining Xiao and Norlito Cezer, “Cationic-modified Cyclodextrin Nanosphere/Anionic Polymer as flocculation/sorption Systems” J. Colloid & Interface Sci. Vol. 283, 406-413(2005).
  82. W. Liu, Y. Ni and H. Xiao, “Montmorillonite Intercalated with Polyaminoamide-Epichlorohydrin: Preparation, Characterization and Sorption Behavior” J. Colloid & Interface Sci. Vol. 275, 584-589 (2004).
  83. L. Huang, H. Xiao and Y. Ni, “Cationic MCM-41: Synthesis, Characterization, and Sorption  Behavior Towards Aromatic Compounds”, Colloids and Surfaces A. Vol. 247, 129-136(2004).
  84. J. Li, H. Xiao, J. Li, Y. Zhong, “Drug Carrier Systems Based on Water-Soluble Cationic b-Cyclodextrin Polymers” International J. Pharmaceutics, Vol. 278, 329-342(2004).
  85. S. Gao, Y. Zhang, A. Zheng and H. Xiao, “Polystyrene Prepared by Reactive Extrusion: Kinetics and Effect of Processing Parameters” Polymer for Adv. Technol. Vol. 15(4), 185-191(2004).
  86. Karademir, Arif, Holyand, Richard, Wiseman, Nicholas, Xiao, Huining, “A Study of the Effects of Alkyl Ketene Dimer and Ketone on Paper Sizing and Friction Properties”, Appita Journal, Vol. 57, no. 2, 116-120(2004).
  87. Samya El-Sherbiny, Huining Xiao, “Effect of Polymeric Thickeners on Pigment Coatings: Adsorption, Rheological Behaviour and Surface Structures” J. Materials Sci. Vol. 39 (14), 4487-4493(2004).
  88. W. Zhou, M. Dong, Y. Guo, and H. Xiao, “Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate on Water-Soluble Hydrophobically Associating Polymer Solutions”, J of Canadian Petroleum Technology, Vol.43, no.2, 1-4(2004).
  89. Gao Shishuang, Zhang Ying, Zheng Anna, Huining Xiao, “Study on Nanometer-Size Styrene-Butadiene Multi-block Copolymer Synthesized by Reactive Extrusion”, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. Vol.91, 2265-2270(2004).