Biology

In the four digit number description of Biology courses taught on the Saint John campus the following code applies:

1st digit specifies year in which course is normally taken.
2nd and 3rd digits designate the particular course.
4th digit designates the duration of the course as follows:

0 Course extends over both terms
1 Term course offered in first term
2 Term course offered in second term
3 Field course offered outside normal session
5 Term course offered in either first or second term

* indicates laboratory sessions are given on alternate weeks.

Prerequisites
All prerequisite courses must be passed with a minimum grade of C. BIOL 1205 or equivalent is a prerequisite for all courses in Biology except 1105, 1202, 1411, 1412, 1416, 1417, 1551, 2831 and 2852.

Note: See beginning of Section F for abbreviations, course numbers and coding.

BIOL1017Applications in Biology, Part II2 ch (3L)

Instruction and laboratory work dealing with the applications of Biology at the level of biological molecules, the cell and organisms.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1105 with a C or better. 

Pre- or co-requisite: BIOL 1205.

BIOL1105Biological Principles, Part I3 ch (3C)

Ecology and evolution of selected plants, animals, and additional organisms. Topics include ecosystems and ecological interactions, and adaptations in the context of the organisms' environment. Note: Students intending to major in Biology must take BIOL 1017 and BIOL 1205. Credit can be obtained for only one of BIOL 1012 or 1105.

BIOL1202Introductory to Marine Science3 ch (3C)

An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of marine environments. Marine management issues and laws will be discussed.

BIOL1205Biological Principles, Part II3 ch (3C)

Considers the chemistry of life, maintenance of cells and organisms, energy utilization, genetic information, reproductive continuity and mechanisms of evolution.

Prerequisite: BIOL 1105 with a C or better. Note: This course is designed for science students or other students planning to major in Biology. Credit can be obtained for only one of BIOL 1205 or BIOL 1001.

BIOL1302Introduction to Environmental Biology3 ch (3C)

Introduction to issues in environmental biology, including ecosystem health, sustainable development, environmental law, multi-stakeholder decision-making, etc. The course will use a case study method to examine local and global effects of human activity on the earth’s ecology and human society, focusing on environmental concerns of coastal regions.

BIOL1411Anatomy & Physiology I3 ch (3C)

Basic concepts in human anatomy and physiology, with an emphasis on the normal condition. Note: Nursing students will not get credit for BIOL 1411.

Prerequisite: Chem 122 and Biology 122

BIOL1412Anatomy & Physiology II3 ch (3C)

A continuation of BIOL 1411, basic concepts in human anatomy and physiology, with an emphasis on the normal condition. NOTE: Nursing students will not get credit for BIOL 1412

Prerequisite: BIOL 1411 or BIOL 1441

BIOL1441Human Anatomy and Physiology I4 ch (3C 3L)

Basic concepts in human anatomy and physiology with an emphasis on the normal condition. This course includes a selection of appropriate laboratory exercises. For Nursing students only.

Prerequisite: CHEM 122 and BIOL 122. 

BIOL1442Human Anatomy and Physiology II4 ch (3C 3L)

Continuation of BIOL 1441 , basic concepts in human anatomy and physiology with an emphasis on the normal condition. This course includes a selection of appropriate laboratory exercises. For Nursing students only

Prerequisite: BIOL 1441

BIOL1605Introduction to Geographic Information Systems and Applications3 ch (3C)

A general introduction to the theory, methods and applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Students will learn the basics of GIS and how to acquire, display, edit, and analyze spatial data with specialized software. GIS is an interdisciplinary field, so students from all faculties may find this course useful.

BIOL2015Introductory Genetics4 ch (3C 3L*) [W]

History of genetics, Mendelian genetics, chromosome theory of inheritance, sex determination and linkage, extensions of Mendelian analysis, genetic linkage, crossing-over, genetic mapping, extranuclear genetics, quantitative and population genetics.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1205 (or BIOL 1551 with a grade of B or higher) and BIOL 1105 and BIOL 1017

BIOL2065Introductory Biochemistry (Cross-Listed: CHEM 2065)4 ch (3C 3L*) [W]

Protein structure and function, techniques for protein analysis, examples of important proteins, mechanisms and regulations of enzymatic activity, metabolism (basic concepts and design, followed by the study of a few pathways). 

Prerequisites: BIOL 1017, BIOL 1105, BIOL 1205 and CHEM 2421 .

BIOL2125Introductory Botany5 ch (3C 3L)

Introduces botanical principles and processes. Includes basic anatomy and morphology on a range of scales: cellular structure and processes, tissues, organs, and their functions.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1205 (or BIOL 1551 with grade of B or higher) and BIOL 1105 and BIOL 1017

BIOL2135Introductory Botany for Non-Biologists3 ch (3C 3T)

Introduces botanical principles and processes. Includes basic anatomy and morphology on a range of scales: cellular structure and processes, tissues, organs and their functions. Students are required to attend weekly laboratory/tutorial sessions, but will not write laboratory exam or assignments. This course is not equivalent to BIOL 2125 for credit toward a BSc, but serves as an acceptable prerequisite for BIOL 3275 , 3353 , 3355 or 3541 in place of BIOL 2125 . Credit will not be granted for both BIOL 2125 and BIOL 2135

Prerequisites: BIOL 1205 or BIOL 1551 with grade of B or higher, or Grade 12 Biology with 80% or higher and permission of the instructor. 

BIOL2245Introductory Molecular Cell Biology4 ch (3C 3L*)
Studies cellular structure , DNA synthesis and repair, RNA synthesis, protein synthesis, gene regulation, cancer, immune response, and molecular techniques.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1205 (or BIOL 1551 with a grade of B or higher) and BIOL 1105 and BIOL 1017

BIOL2345Fundamentals of Microbiology3 ch (3C)

Introduction to the fundamental concepts of infectious disease microbiology. Discusses bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, helminths and arthropods. NOTE: This course cannot be taken by BSc majors in General Biology, Environmental Biology, or Marine Biology. Credit can only be obtained for one of BIOL 2485, BIOL 3251, BIOL 2385.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1205 (or BIOL 1551 with a grade of B or higher), BIOL 1105 and BIOL 2245; one of BIOL 3055, BIOL 3356, BIOL 4775; or instructor's permission.

BIOL2485Introduction to Microbiology 4 ch (3C 3L*)

Covers the occurrence, distribution and importance of the major groups of bacteria; bacterial metabolism, growth, structure and function;introduces the role of microbes in the environment, microbial interactions, biological cycles and exploitation of microbes by industry. Labs stress techniques for observation, cultivation and characterization of bacteria and experimental concepts of the discipline. 

Prerequisites:BIOL 1205 (or BIOL 1551 with a grade of B or higher), BIOL 1105 and BIOL 1017.

BIOL2585Introductory Ecology4 ch (3C 4L*)

Introduces concepts of ecology common to terrestrial, fresh water and marine ecosystems. Provides a basis for further ecological or environmental studies. Introduces man’s influence on ecosystems. 

Prerequisite: BIOL 1105 and BIOL 1017

BIOL2615Introductory Zoology5 ch (3C 3L)

Classification, functional morphology, development and evolution of the major animal groups.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1205 , BIOL 1105 and BIOL 1017; all with a grade of "C" or better.      
BIOL2831Pathophysiology 3 ch (3C)

A review of the normal physiological mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis. This is followed by a consideration of how various perturbations (such as environmental or life style factors) and disease can disrupt the normal balance and lead to pathology. For Nursing students only, or by permission of the instructor.

Prerequisite: BIOL 1441 and BIOL 1442

BIOL2852Pathophysiology II3 ch (3C)

A continuation of BIOL 2831

Prerequisite: BIOL 2831. For Nursing students only.

BIOL3015Wildlife Ecotourism3ch
This course will introduce students to the history, concepts, principles, planning and management of wildlife tourism enterprises and how research is conducted to determine if these activities have a negative impact on the behaviour and/or physiology of the wildlife involved. Prerequisite: 60 ch completed.
BIOL3055Animal Physiology I (A)4 ch (3C 3L*)

A physiological approach to organismic function in animals, focusing on homeostasis and nervous, muscular, and cardiovascular systems.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2615

BIOL3132Advanced Biochemistry3 ch (3C)

Emphasizes the molecular underpinnings of the healthy and diseased states by extending and integrating essential molecular concepts introduced in Introductory Biochemistry, BIOL 2065.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2065

BIOL3165Marine Ecology (A)4 ch (3C 3L*)

An introduction to the interrelationships between organism and environment in marine ecosystems. Limited enrollment: preference will be given to Marine Biology Majors, then other students based on C.G.P.A.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2585

BIOL3140Independent Studies3 ch (3WS) [W]

Gives academically strong Biology Majors an opportunity to write a research report or perform a research project on a subject of interest. The student must discuss the topic with an instructor best qualified to give approval in the subject area and is able to give guidance during the year.

 Prerequisite: Completion of 60ch and permission of instructor.

BIOL3245Environmental Chemistry (A) (Cross-Listed: CHEM 3245)4 ch (3C 3L)

Course will provide students with a chemical basis for understanding the natural environment and current environmental issues. Topics will include: the composition of the natural environment, the chemistry supporting environmental processes, and the main reactions of natural & anthropogenic chemicals in the atmosphere, water, and soils. Note: This course may be listed as either BIOL 3245 or CHEM 3245. Credit can not be obtained for both BIOL 3245 and CHEM 3245.

Prerequisites: One term of organic chemistry at the 2nd year level.

BIOL3251Introduction to Microbiology 3 ch (3C)

Introduction to the fundamental concepts of infectious disease microbiology. Discusses bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, helminths and arthropods. For Nursing students only (or with permission of Instructor).

BIOL3275Economic Botany (A)4 ch (3C 3L)

Considers the range of ways in which plants are used by humans for food, medicine, shelter, etc. Discusses the impact of plants on humans and vice versa, including the possible origins and impacts of agriculture, importance of plants in various cultures, and selection of desirable plant features by humans. Students will research an area of particular interest and present a seminar on it.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2125

BIOL3353Flora of New Brunswick (A)5 ch (3C 3L)

A practical taxonomy course dealing with a range of vascular plants: ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms and flowering plants; consideration of taxonomic concepts, literature and methods used to identify various groups. Laboratory emphasis will be on features of important plant families and identification of students’ plant collections.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2125

BIOL3355Survey of the Plant Kingdom (A)5 ch (3C/3L)

Explores diversity in form, structure and function in major plant groups, and how these organisms live and reproduce in their particular environments. Probable homologies and evolutionary relationships are discussed.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2125

BIOL3622Current Topics in Aquaculture3 ch (3C)

This course will explore topics of special interest to aquaculturists at an advanced level. The title of the topic will be specified by the Department. The title of the topic will appear on the student's transcript. Open only to students in third year and above.

Prerequisite: Permission of the Instructor.

BIOL3363Special Topics in Biology3 ch (3C)

This course will explore topics of special interest at an advanced level. Topics will be specified by the Department. Title of topic will appear on the student transcripts. Open only to students in third year and above. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the Instructor. 

BIOL3364Special Topics in Biology4 ch (3C 3L)

This course will explore topics of special interest at an advanced level. Topics will be specified by the Department. Title of topic will appear on the student transcripts. Open only to students in third year and above. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the Instructor. 

BIOL3435Biomolecules and Primary Metabolism (A) (Cross-Listed: CHEM 3435)3 ch (3C)

This course will examine the chemistry, function, biosynthesis and metabolism of primary metabolites. Classes of compounds covered will include carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins and nucleic acids. Note: This course may be listed as either BIOL 3435 or CHEM 3435. Credit cannot be obtained for both BIOL 3435 and CHEM 3435.

Prerequisites: CHEM 2422 and BIOL 2065

BIOL3385Advanced Microbiology5 ch (3C 3L)
This course is an in-depth introduction into original research and experiential learning. Students will design and implement a research project involving isolation of microbes, molecular identification of cultures, fermentation and extraction of biologically active compounds. Compounds will be assess through bioassay-directed fractionation and biological activity determined through quantitative procedures. This course will include: experimental design, acquisition of new laboratory skills, statistical analysis and scientific writing.Prerequisites: BIOL 2485 and CHEM 2422
BIOL3541Plant Ecology (A)5 ch (3C 3L)

A course on the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of plants, how patterns and structure at the levels of populations and communities can be described quantitatively, and how these arise from the interaction of abiotic (climate, fire, soil) and biotic (competition, herbivory) factors.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2125 and BIOL 2585

BIOL3553Introduction to Bioinformatics (Cross-listed:CS3553)4 ch (3C)
Even before the completion of the Human Genome Sequencing Project biomedical databases have stored massive amounts of DNA and protein sequence information that have been analysed and reused in biomedical studies. Today the underlying technologies and analytical tools supporting genomic data analysis make up the field known as Bioinformatics. This course will introduce core topics and tools in genomics and bioinformatics explained from a practical perspective. Students taking this course will receive hands-on training in many of the following areas of study: Genome Sequencing techniques, Gene Prediction, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Databases, Genome and Protein Structure Annotation, Bioinformatic Visualization Techniques, Gene Ontology, Analysis of Scientific Literature, Biomedical Text Mining, Workflow Management Systems, Bioinformatics Web Services.Prerequisites: 60 credit hours completed in a BSc (Biology, Marine Biology, Environmental Biology, or Biology-Psychology) or in a BScCS or permission of the instructor.
BIOL3565Conservation Biology (A)4 ch (2C 3L)

Emphasizes the management of environmental and ecological resources in such a way as to maintain ecosystem resources for the protection of species. Focus will be on methods of determining population habitat requirements, community interactions, impacts of habitat change, cumulative effects of environmental pressures, etc. in coastal systems. Issues such as biodiversity, habitat protection, endangered species protection, politics of conservation, etc. will also be discussed.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2585

BIOL3625Structure and Functions of Marine Invertebrates5 ch (3C 3L)

Explores the structure and functions of major marine invertebrate phyla, emphasizing comparative and organismic approaches, respectively. Topics covered include food capture and digestion, defense mechanisms, respiration, circulation, excretion, skeletal support, reproduction and life cycles, as well as locomotion.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2615

BIOL3635Animal Physiology II (A)4 ch (2C 4L)

A physiological approach to organismic function in animals, focusing on endocrine and temperature effects on homeostasis; osmoregulation; and the respiratory and urinary systems.

Prerequisite: BIOL 3055

BIOL3665Introduction to Environmental Law (A)3 ch (3C)

This course will provide a general overview of the different concepts that surround environmental law. Recent events have focused our attention on the fragility of the environment, and there is evidence of its deterioration in the forms of harmful pollution, resource depletion, thinning of the earth’s ozone layer, global warming, ground water contamination and the decline or even extinction of species. We will look at the legislation, the common law, and the different remedies they provide in cases of environmental crisis.

Prerequisite: a minimum of 60 chs.

BIOL3715Biology of Vertebrates5 ch (3C 3L)

A comparative account, principally of the physiology and functional anatomy of the higher vertebrates.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2615

BIOL3755Fish Biology (A)5 ch (3C 3L)

A study of the anatomy, physiology, and classification of Recent fishes. In classification and geographical distribution, emphasis is placed on the marine northwest Atlantic fishes and freshwater fishes of New Brunswick. Limited enrollment: preference will be given to Marine Biology Majors, then other students based on C.G.P.A.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2615

BIOL3765Fisheries Ecology (A)3 ch (2C 3L*)

This course takes an ecological approach to fisheries management. Topics include: age and growth, life history analysis, bioenergetics, functional ecology, social behaviour, population estimates, recruitment dynamics and management. Limited enrollment: preference will be given to Marine Biology Majors, then other students based on C.G.P.A.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2615

BIOL3875Tropical Marine Biology5 ch (3C 3L)
Students will be studying the behaviour and ecology of tropical marine flora and fauna in Bimini, Bahamas. The emphasis will be on marine vertebrate species and their surrounding environment. The impact of tourism on this flora and fauna will also be a focus of this course.Pre-requisites: BIOL 2615 and minimum of 60 ch completed.
BIOL3903Diversity and Habitats of Marine Organisms5 ch (3C 3L)

This course introduces students to the diversity and systematics of marine organisms in the Bay of Fundy, including major taxonomic divisions of mammals, fish, algae, and invertebrates. The course emphasizes variation in assemblages of organisms inhabiting different types of habitats, such as estuaries, marine benthos and pelagos, as well as rocky and soft-sediment intertidal shores. Students will be exposed to this diversity by learning about a number of methods commonly used to sample and quantify the abundance of marine organisms, such as transects and quadrats, mark-recapture experiments, beach seine, minnow traps, dip nets, bottom trawls, gillnets as well as shipboard techniques. Note: This course is offered exclusively in the Marine Semester. 

Course pre-requisites are at least one university level introductory courses in each of ecology and zoology with a grade of “C” or better.

BIOL3913Adaptations of Marine Organisms5 ch (3C 3L)

This course introduces students to a myriad of adaptations of marine organisms living in the Bay of Fundy. Topics covered will vary from year to year. Students will learn about major ecological factors affecting the distribution and abundance of marine organisms, and they will study select biochemical, physiological, morphological, behavioral and life-history adaptations displayed by these organisms in response to these selective agents. Students will also investigate variation of these adaptive traits in relation to temporal and spatial variability in the characteristics of marine habitats. This knowledge will largely be acquired through short-term lab and field observations and exercises, which will be supported by lectures, directed readings and group discussions. Many exercises will rely on the scientific approach to test competing hypotheses pertaining to the functional significance of selected features displayed by marine organisms. . Note: This course is offered exclusively in the Marine Semester.

Course prerequisites are at least one university level introductory courses in each of ecology and zoology with a grade of “C” or better.

BIOL3922History and Development of Aquaculture3ch (3C)

This course reviews the history and evolution of aquaculture practices. Topics covered will vary from year to year, but may include: seaweed, aquatic plant, invertebrate and fish species being cultivated in the world; site and practice selection and management; different types of aquaculture systems and their sustainability; monoculture; integrated multi-trophic aquaculture; offshore aquaculture; land-based aquaculture; aquaculture and environment impacts: what is acceptable; aquaculture and ecosystem services (nutrient biomitigation, oxygen provision, carbon sequestration, reduction of ocean acidification) ; assimilative capacity and resilience of ecosystems; aquaculture and climate change; aquaculture and harmful algal blooms; veterinarian approach to aquaculture; societal, economic and regulatory aspects of aquaculture; aquaculture in the broader integrated coastal zone management perspective; organism health and healthy products; differentiation and diversification of products; food production systems; world markets and consumer trends; business models and the integrated sequential biorefinery concept; development of responsible aquanomy. Some components of the course will be delivered by experts from Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, the New Brunswick Department of Agriculture, Aquaculture and Fisheries, other academic institutions, the aquaculture industry, aquaculture professional associations, feed companies, and consultants. 

Prerequisites: 60 ch completed or permission of instructor. 

BIOL3923History and Development of Marine Aquaculture2 ch (3C)

This course reviews the history and evolution of marine aquaculture practices. Topics covered will vary from year to year, but may include: plant and animal species being cultivated in the world; different types of aquaculture systems and their sustainability; site and practice selection and management; aquaculture and environment impacts: what is acceptable; assimilative capacity and resilience of ecosystems; social, economic and regulatory aspects of aquaculture; aquaculture in broader integrated coastal zone management perspective; integrated multitrophic aquaculture and offshore aquaculture; differentiation and diversification of products, world markets and consumer trends. To connect the theory in the classroom to the experience in the field, visits of hatcheries, aquaculture sites, as well as processing and manufacturing facilities will be conducted. Different components of the course will be delivered by experts from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, the New Brunswick Department of Agriculture and Aquaculture, aquaculture professional associations, the aquaculture industry, feed companies and consultants. Note: This course is offered exclusively in the Marine Semester, and has no pre-requisites.

BIOL3933Directed Studies in Marine Sciences5 ch (3C 3L)

This course teaches students the fundamentals of the scientific method, and gives them the opportunity to conduct a small research project in marine sciences under the supervision and guidance from practicing scientists. Topics covered include: hypotheses and predictions; experimental and comparative approaches; variation, replication, pseudo-replication and sampling; calibration, accuracy and precision; experimental designs and their relation to statistics; scientific writing. Students will first work through a small question with instructors to put into practice concepts discussed in class, and they will then work on their own project throughout the better part of the semester to further hone their research skills. Students will choose the topic of their project and establish its design in consultation with instructors and via group discussions with classmates. Projects will be designed to take advantage of local marine organisms and habitats. Students will collect, analyze, interpret and write-up their results following the format of a scientific paper, and they will present them to the class at the end of the semester. Note: This course is offered exclusively in the Marine Semester. Course pre-requisites are at least one university level introductory courses in each of statistics, ecology and zoology, all with a grade of “C” or better.

BIOL3943Current Topics in Marine Sciences2 ch (3C)

This is a seminar course to acquaint students with some topical issues and recent developments in marine sciences, and provide them with an opportunity to critically evaluate and discuss scientific work. The course will consist of research seminars given by university and government scientists, as well as assigned readings and group discussions that will be associated with each presentation. Topics and guest speakers will vary from year to year, but all seminars will be based on marine organisms, habitats, and/or topical issues, both theoretical and practical. Note: This course is offered exclusively in the Marine Semester. Course pre-requisites are at least one university level introductory courses in each of statistics, ecology and zoology, all with a grade of “C” or better.

BIOL3953Ecology of Estuarine Fishes3ch (1C 3L)

Community structure, function and distribution of northern coastal fishes in estuarine environments. Emphasis is on sampling, field techniques, taxonomy, quantitative characterization, adaptations and habitat relationships. A comparative approach will contrast fish assemblages from deepwater, estuarine, nearshore marine and freshwater habitats. Note: This course is offered exclusively in the Marine Semester. 

Course prerequisites are at least one university level introductory courses in each of ecology and zoology with a grade of “C” or better.
BIOL3955Biological Oceanography (A)4 ch (3C 3L*)

A synopsis of descriptive physical and biological oceanography of the world's oceans with special emphasis on Canadian coastal waters. Laboratories emphasize techniques for measurement of oceanographic parameters and include some field studies. Limited enrollment; preference will be given to Marine Biology Majors, then other students based on C.G.P.A. 

Prerequisite: BIOL 2585

BIOL4022Evolution4 ch (3C 3L)

Traces the development of a body of theory explaining biological unity and diversity, from pre-Darwinian ideas to current issues in evolutionary biology. The course integrates theoretical, descriptive, and empirical studies to elucidate the patterns and processes of evolution (what evolution is, and how it occurs), and to explore the experimental and analytical methods biologists use to study evolution.

Prerequisite: Completion of second year core-curriculum, including either BIOL 2015 or BIOL 2245, or permission of instructor.

BIOL4090Honours Project9 ch [W]

Gives academically strong Biology Majors, under the supervision of a full time faculty member, to undertake a thesis project with permission of the Department. Students who intend to apply for this elective are advised to consult with their intended supervisory faculty member at the beginning of their third year.

BIOL4115Landscape Ecology4 ch (3C 3L)

Landscape Ecology is the study of ecology in heterogeneous environments. It is an interdisciplinary science that draws on elements of traditional ecology, biogeography, landscape architecture, ecosystem ecology, modeling, geostatistics, and remote sensing. It is characterized by the explicit consideration of space and time; where organisms live, how their environments vary, and how the relative locations of different components of the environment affect biological processes. This course covers these topics through lectures, labs, discussions, and a major group project.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2585

BIOL4155(4159). Current Topics in Biology3 ch (2C)

A lecture/seminar course to acquaint students with some of the outstanding recent developments in various fields. Restricted to students majoring in Biology or Marine Biology. 

Prerequisite: Permission of Instructor.

BIOL4245Molecular Ecology 4 ch (3C 3L)

Molecular Biology plays an important role in ecology. This course will introduce concepts and applications in molecular evolution, population genetics, quantitative genetics and ecological genomics. Topics will include gene expression, genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics. Students will become familiar with various molecular methodologies, data analysis, and result interpretation that can be used to study ecology, adaptation, and contemporary evolution. This course will appeal to those students interested in the natural sciences, as well as the medical sciences. 

Prerequisites: BIOL 2015 or BIOL 2245 or BIOL 4022 or permission of the Instructor. 

BIOL4325Biology of Marine Birds4 ch (3C 3L)
The biology of seaducks, seabirds, and shorebirds. This course will cover aspects of life history, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and conservation of marine birds with an emphasis placed on North Atlantic species.Prerequisites: BIOL 2585, BIOL 2615
BIOL4373Tropical Marine Biology Field Courses3 ch

An examination of tropical coastal ecosystems. The course will focus on the ecology of coral reefs, tropical fish ecology and physiology, tropical seaweed biology and mangrove ecology. The course consists of lectures, fieldwork and laboratory work.

Prerequisite: BIOL 3173 or equivalent; or permission of instructor. 

BIOL4385Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Research 5 ch (3C 3L)
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines derived from natural sources and BIOL 4385 will expose students to the strategies and techniques employed in the natural product drug discovery process. This course follows BIOL 3385 Advanced Microbiology, where students continue to experience isolation of microbes from plant and animal host tissues and determine the potential existence of bioactive natural products. Techniques include: aseptic technique, microbial culture maintenance and storage, fermentation, liquid-liquid partition, bioassay-directed fractionation, NMR and PCR determination of chemical structures and microbial identity respectively.Prerequisite: BIOL 3385 or instructor's permission
BIOL4435Biologically Active Natural Products and Secondary Metabolism (A) (Cross-Listed: CHEM 4435) 3 ch (3C)

This course will examine the biosynthesis, biological activity and ecological significance of secondary metabolites. The following topics will include: the links between primary and secondary metabolic pathways; an overview of the mechanisms, chemistry and coenzymes involved in the biosynthesis of natural products; the acetate pathway; the Shikimate pathway; the mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate pathways; the alkaloids and chemical ecology. Note: This course may be listed as either BIOL 4435 or CHEM 4435. Credit cannot be obtained for both BIOL 4435 and CHEM 4435.

Prerequisites: CHEM 2422 and BIOL 2065

BIOL4445Marine Behavioral Ecology3 ch (3C)

Explores the relationship between animal behaviour, ecology and evolution. Theoretical concepts covered include the economics of animal decision making, predator-prey relationships, competition, fighting and assessment, sexual conflict and sexual selection, parental care and mating systems, alternative breeding strategies, altruism and co-operation, Whenever possible marine organisms, and particularly invertebrates will be used to illustrate theoretical concepts.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2585 Introductory Ecology

BIOL4645Biology and Conservation of Marine Mammals (A)3 ch (3C) [W]

The biology of seals, whales, and sea-cows. Life histories, behaviour, reproduction, and population estimation techniques will receive special emphasis. The biological, economic, and moral aspects of man’s direct and indirect influence on, and utilization of marine mammals will be discussed.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2615

BIOL4663Advanced Elasmobranch Studies3 ch (3C)
This course will introduce students to advanced studies in elasmobranch biology and ecology with an emphasis on sharks, in particular sharks of the Northern Hemisphere. Topics will include current techniques in shark research, global conservation measures, Canadian Shark Management Plans, shark diving industry, shark fishing, and in-depth studies on shark physiology. Prerequisite: BIOL 2615 and BIOL 3055 (or permission of instructor).
BIOL4693Diversity and Systematics of Marine Invertebrates4 ch

Introduces basic techniques for invertebrate identification, monitoring and biodiversity assessment in rich and diverse invertebrate fauna of the Quoddy Region. Practical work includes shipboard sampling, field trips to coastal sites and laboratory exercises that present a broad overview of invertebrates of intertidal, plankton and subtidal benthic communities. The course is held at the Huntsman Marine Science Centre, St. Andrews, and is twelve days in length. A charge of tuition, full board and lodging is required. 

Prerequisite: BIOL 2615 or equivalent

BIOL4775Physiology of Marine Vertebrates (A)3 ch (3C)

A course on selected aspects of the comparative physiology of marine fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals.

Prerequisite: BIOL 3055

BIOL4825Introduction to Ecotoxicology (A)4 ch (2C 3L)

A theoretical and applied approach to the science of ecotoxicology, including application of the tools and procedures used to understand toxicant fate and effects in ecosystems. Both field (ed. Community level environmental “effects” monitoring) and laboratory (eg. LC50 tests) methods for understanding contaminant fates and effects will be examined.

Prerequisite:at least 20ch of Biology courses completed.

BIOL4855Biometrics4 ch (3C 2T)

Students are introduced to methods of statistical analysis relevant to biological questions. Topics of study will include: experimental design, how to deal with noisy data (transformations); parametric and non-parametric tests; how to deal with missing data; regression (linear & non linear); statistical packages; and introduction to multivariate statistics (PCA and DFA).

Prerequisite: STAT 2263 or equivalent.

BIOL4861Advanced Environmental Biology (A)4 ch (3C 3L*)
This course examines several of the main environmental issues of concern in the region, in Canada and around the globe such as impacts of natural resource development (e.g., oil and gas, forestry, mining), climate change, and water use and its pollution on the environment and on humans. It covers emerging options with green energy and sustainable development, and provides students with an in-depth understanding of the links between human activities and environmental health.Prerequisite: BIOL 1302.
BIOL4875Environmental Techniques (A)4 ch (3C 3L*)

A techniques course, in which students will have practical experience in sampling and analytical techniques, including: water, air and soil sampling; plant and animal sampling in field and lab; and chemical analyses of tissues and water, air and soil. Appropriate study design and statistical analyses of collected data will be emphasized.

BIOL4935Comparative Animal Behaviour3 ch (3C)

Physiological bases of behaviour, the animal in relation to its environment, the animal in its social context, and the evolution of behavioural displays and activities. Emphasizes the adaptive significance of behavioural activities (ethology) rather than experimental psychology.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2615