Interdepartmental Programs

Eight interdepartmental programs are available based on existing courses in the Science Faculty to meet the needs of students proceeding into an interdisciplinary area. These Major programs are not truly interdisciplinary but are extracted from the specialized offerings of two Departments in each case.

These programs are administered jointly by the two departments concerned, and students should refer to specified program advisors for counseling.

Students are advised to consult their academic advisors to carefully plan their selection of first and second year courses to ensure that the relevant prerequisites are completed prior to selection of courses at the third and fourth year levels.

Students should note that in the Science Faculty the minimum acceptable grade in a course which is required by a particular program or is used to meet a prerequisite, is a "C". Any student who fails to attain a "C" or better in such a course must repeat the course (at the next regular session) until a grade of "C" or better is attained. Students will not be eligible for graduation until such deficiencies are removed. The only exception will be granted for a single course with a “D” grade that is a normal part of the final year of that program, and is being taken for the first time in the final year.

NOTE: In individual cases certain modifications to these programs may be recommended by the Chairs of the Departments concerned, or their delegates.

Honours in Interdepartmental Programs

Application for Honours in the interdepartmental programs is made prior to registration in the final year to the appropriate Department Chairs or their delegates. The Honours content of interdepartmental programs consists of content in addition to that prescribed for the corresponding Major program, usually in the final year. Normally this will be in the form of one of the departmental honours or senior research projects (i.e. BIOL 4090, CHEM 4000, ESCI 4900, MATH 4100PHYS 4338, STAT 4100). Requirements for qualified students will be approved by the two Departments responsible for the program, in consultation.

NOTE: Requirements for Honours programs generally exceed those for Majors programs. In light of this, students may need to take on a heavier course load than would otherwise be the case to finish the degree in four years. Alternatively, students may need to extend the time needed to finish the degree.

Biology-Chemistry Option

The interdepartmental Biology-Chemistry Program provides a comprehensive curriculum covering various aspects of biochemistry, molecular biology, and health-relevant chemistry disciplines. It combines courses from Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics, as well as electives from other disciplines. A minimum of 12 ch of electives must be from courses offered by the Faculty of Arts. Students will normally enter the Biology-Chemistry program after completing the first year science curriculum (32 ch). Students must consult with one of the Biology-Chemistry advisors in order to enter the program.

Two Biology-Chemistry program streams are offered. The Pre-Health Profession stream is recommended for students who may enter a professional health program upon graduation (i.e. medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, optometry, veterinary medicine, etc.). The Comprehensive stream is recommended for students who may consider graduate studies or careers in the biochemistry/molecular biology/pharmaceutical sectors. Both program streams are offered at the Major and Honours level. For the final year of the Honours program, students may choose between Honours by course and Honours by thesis. Entry into either of the Honours program streams is allowed after first year provided that a minimum CGPA of 3.0 has been attained (a CGPA of 3.0 must be maintained in subsequent years). Upon graduation, Honours students must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.0  (3.7 for a First Class Honours standing). A student completing all the course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Major degree.

First Year (common to all Biology-Chemistry programs)

BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006, BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017, CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017, MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063, PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072.

Pre-Health Profession stream, Major program (132 ch):

Second Year

BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018, BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028, BIOL 2792, CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422, CHEM 2601, MATH 2003

Third and Fourth Years

BIOL 1711, BIOL 2063 , BIOL 2068, BIOL 2761, BIOL 2812, CHEM 2416, CHEM 3421CHEM 3523CHEM 3857, STAT 2264

Electives

  1. 12 ch of Arts courses.
  2. 15 ch of upper level Biology (3000 or 4000 level courses) including a minimum of 2 laboratory or field courses (denoted by the course designation "L" in the course description).
  3. 15 ch of 2000-4000 level Chemistry courses including a minimum of 10 ch in a discipline other than Organic Chemistry (i.e. Analytical, Physical or Inorganic Chemistry).
  4. Other electives to total a minimum of 132 ch.

Pre-Health Profession stream, Honours program (144 ch):

Second Year
BIOL 1711, BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018, BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028, BIOL 2792, BIOL 2812, CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422, CHEM 2601, MATH 2003, 3 ch elective.

Third and Fourth Years
BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068, BIOL 2761, CHEM 2416, CHEM 3421CHEM 3523CHEM 3857, STAT 2264. By fourth year, students must choose between Honours by course and Honours by thesis. For Honours by thesis add BIOL 4090 or CHEM 4000.

Electives

  1. 12 ch of Arts courses.
  2. For Honours by thesis, 15 ch of upper level Biology (3000 or 4000 level courses) including a minimum of 2 laboratory or field courses (denoted by the course designation "L" in the course description).
  3. For Honours by thesis, 18 ch of 2000-4000 level Chemistry courses including a minimum of 10 ch in a discipline other than Organic Chemistry (i.e. Analytical, Physical or Inorganic Chemistry).
  4. For Honours by course, 21 ch of upper level Biology (3000 or 4000 level courses) including a minimum of 2 laboratory or field courses (denoted by the course designation "L" in the course description).
  5. For Honours by course, 21 ch of 2000-4000 level Chemistry courses, including a minimum of 10 ch in a discipline other than Organic Chemistry (i.e. Analytical, Physical or Inorganic Chemistry).
  6. Other electives to total a minimum of 144 ch.

Comprehensive Stream, Majors Program (135 ch)

Second Year
BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018, BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028, one of CHEM 2201 or CHEM 2121, one of CHEM 2222 or CHEM 3122, CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422, CHEM 2601, MATH 2003, STAT 2264.

Third Year
BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068, BIOL 3031 , BIOL 3242, CHEM 2416 , CHEM 3421, CHEM 3857, one of CHEM 3621, PHYS 3993 or PHYS 3892.

Fourth Year
BIOL 3043 , BIOL 3013, BIOL 4272, 1 Group B course**, CHEM 3523CHEM 4003CHEM 4513 1 Group A*.

Electives

  1. 12 ch of Arts courses.
  2. 4 ch from either electives or Group A courses must be from upper year CHEM labs (CHEM 2136/CHEM 3137/CHEM 2237/CHEM 3236/CHEM 3637/CHEM 4616)
  3. Other electives to total a minimum of 135 ch.

Comprehensive stream, Honours program (144 ch):

Second Year
BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018, BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028, one of CHEM 2201 or CHEM 2121, one of CHEM 2222 or CHEM 3122, CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422, CHEM 2601, MATH 2003, STAT 2264.

Third Year
BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068, BIOL 3031, BIOL 3242, and CHEM 2416, CHEM 3421CHEM 3857, one of CHEM 3621PHYS 3993 or PHYS 3892, 2 Group A courses*

Fourth Year 

BIOL 3043, BIOL 3013BIOL 4272, 1 Group B course**, CHEM 3003, CHEM 4513, CHEM 4523  1 Group A course*.

By fourth year, students must choose between Honours by course and Honours by thesis and add the following to their program:
i. Honours by course: add 3 Group A courses*.
ii. Honours by thesis: add BIOL 4090 or CHEM 4000. Please see the course descriptions for BIOL 4090 and CHEM 4000 for details regarding admission to the thesis research courses.

Electives

  1. 12 ch of Arts courses. 
  2. 4 ch from either electives or Group A must be from upper year CHEM labs (CHEM 2136/CHEM 3137/CHEM 2237/CHEM 3236/CHEM 3637/CHEM 4616)
  3. Other electives to total a minimum of 144 ch.

* Group A courses:

BIOL 3058BIOL 3073, BIOL 3149, BIOL 3162, BIOL 3207BIOL 3261, BIOL 3493BIOL 3593, BIOL 3673BIOL 3833, BIOL 3908, BIOL 3933, BIOL 4149***, BIOL 4182, BIOL 4533, BIOL 5473, CHEM 3003, any 2000-4000 level CHEM course, MATH 2213, PHYS 3993.

** Group B courses:

BIOL 3058, BIOL 3207, BIOL 4182, BIOL 4533.

***Note that students can only receive credit for either BIOL 4149 or BIOL 4090.

BIOLOGY-MATHEMATICS/STATISTICS OPTION

Requirements for the Majors Program

First Year

First year required courses are listed under the BSc general regulations. BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006, BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017, CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017, MATH 1003 or MATH 1053MATH 1013 or MATH 1063 must be included. Suggested electives are STAT 2264 and CS 1003 or CS 1073. CS 1003 or CS 1073, and STAT 2264, if not taken in first year must be taken later in the program.

Second Year

BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018MATH 2003, MATH 2013, MATH 2203, MATH 2213, plus 6 ch in Biology or Math/Stat , plus approved electives totalling at least 6 ch.  

NOTE: Biology is a quantitative discipline and mathematics underpins all sub-disciplines in Biology. Students with a strong quantitative background are better positioned for graduate research. Areas in which Math/Stat are used extensively include all areas of ecology and evolution, bioinformatics, genomics and systems biology. Students interested in more molecular aspects of biology and hoping to direct the component of their program towards biochemistry, biophysics, etc. may be given permission to take BIOL 2023, BIOL 2028. Careful planning of the program will be required to avoid timetable problems in this case.

Third and Fourth Years
Approved Biology courses (mostly at the 3000 and 4000 level) for a total of 24 ch in Biology, MATH 3003, MATH 3213, MATH 4563, STAT 3083, STAT 3093, plus a total of 9 ch approved Math/Stat courses, plus additional approved electives totalling 12 ch.  A minimum of 12 ch of electives must be from the Faculty of Arts.

A minimum of 129 ch is required for completion of this program.

NOTES:

  1. Students should consider the following courses in selecting Mathematics/Statistics courses.
    Analytical Orientation: MATH 3043, MATH 3073, MATH 3413, MATH 4503
    Statistical Orientation: STAT 4053 *, STAT 4073, STAT 4083, STAT 3373 *, STAT 3383 *
    (Courses marked with an * are particularly recommended)
    Students should consider BIOL 2003, BIOL 3293 and BIOL 3943 in selecting Biology courses.
  2. MATH 4563 (cross-listed as BIOL 4563) is offered in alternate years. Special care is required in scheduling.

Requirements for the Honours Program
There are two Honours programs (Honours by Course and Honours by Thesis). Students must have (and maintain) a minimum CPGA of 3.0 to be accepted in and remain in either program. Upon graduation, the Honours student must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.7 for a First Class Honours standing and a final CGPA of at least 3.0 for Honours. A student completing all the course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Majors degree.

i.  Honours by Course (141  ch): In addition to the requirements for the Majors degree listed above, the student must complete 12 ch of approved Biology or Mathematics/Statistics courses at the 3000 or 4000 level (with at least one from each of the Biology and Mathematics/Statistics Departments).

ii. Honours by Thesis (141 ch): Refer to the requirements for an Honours by Course degree listed above.  In addition, students intending to complete an Honours by Thesis degree must arrange to complete their dissertation research with a faculty member in either the Department of Biology or Department of Mathematics and Statistics before applying to the program. (Joint supervision with a co-supervisor from each department is also possible.) Once an appropriate supervisor is found, the student must then write a letter to the Chair of the appropriate Department requesting entrance into the thesis course (one of BIOL 4090 or MATH 4100 or STAT 4100) as part of the additional 12 ch required by the Honours program.  A reader from the second department must also oversee the research project (unless the project is co-supervised by a member from each department). 

BIOLOGY-PHYSICS OPTION

Physical principles constrain the evolution and diversity of life. Current areas where Physics features most prominently in Biology include ecosystem ecology and global change biology, interactions of organisms with their physical environment, studies of metabolism and energy flux, and the physical principles of biological systems. Methodological applications such as isotope biology, and imaging also rely heavily on physical principles. Students interested in these areas will benefit from a strong background in both disciplines. To ensure necessary prerequisites are met when planning an individual program, students must consult with advisors from both departments, ideally prior to Second Year.

Requirements for the Majors Program (138 ch)
First Year
BIOL 1001, BIOL 1006, BIOL 1012, BIOL 1017, CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017, MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063, PHYS 1061 or PHYS PHYS 1071, PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072, PHYS 1091 and PHYS 1092.

Second Year
BIOL 2013, BIOL 2018, plus 6 ch in Biology (second-year core courses), plus PHYS 2311, PHYS 2312, PHYS 2341, PHYS 2351, MATH 2003 and MATH 2013 or MATH 1503 and MATH 2513, STAT 2264 or STAT 2593.

Third and Fourth Years
24 ch of approved Biology courses (mostly at the 3000 and 4000 level), plus 30 ch of approved Physics courses, plus 12 ch of approved Arts electives.

Requirements for the Honours Program (150 ch)

To receive Honours in Biology-Physics, a student must complete a total of 150 ch, including the requirements for the Major Program, plus an additional 12 ch of approved Biology or Physics courses at the 3000 or 4000 level.  Students must have (and maintain) a minimum CGPA of 3.0 to be accepted in and remain in the Honours program. Application to the Honours program is initiated by writing a letter of intent to the Chair of Biology or Physics before preregistration at the end of Year III. BIOL 4090 (Honours Thesis Project) or PHYS 4338 (Advanced Research Project) is required and the course descriptions should be consulted for further information and specific procedures. Students must make arrangements to complete their dissertation research with a Faculty member in the Department of Biology or of Physics before applying to the Program. In each case, a reader from the second department must also oversee the research project.

The Honours student must achieve a minimum final CGPA of 3.7 to obtain First Class Honours standing upon graduation. A student completing all course requirements for Honours but with a CGPA below 3.0 will be given a Majors degree.

CHEMISTRY-PHYSICS OPTION

The Chemistry-Physics Option offers a challenging program for strong students. This interdepartmental program provides a solid core of courses in both Chemistry and Physics. It is set up in such a way that a student may opt for the single disciplines of Chemistry or Physics after the second year. A BSc in this joint program would allow students to continue studies at the graduate level in either Physics or Physical Chemistry.

Careful choice of electives in first and second year will make any change from the joint program into a single discipline program easier.

First Year
CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017, PHYS 1061 or 1HYS 1071, PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072, PHYS 1091 and PHYS 1092, MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063, plus two more term lecture courses chosen from BIOL 1001, BIOL 1012, ESCI 1001, ESCI 1012, plus 6 ch electives.

NOTE: Students must have a minimum AGPA of 3.0 to enter second year of this program and they must maintain the 3.0 AGPA at the end of second year to proceed to third year. Students must have passed MATH 1013 or MATH 1063 before entering the second year of this program. Because of the challenging nature of the program, some students may plan to spread the required courses over five years.

Second Year
CHEM 2601, or PHYS 2341, CHEM 3637, MATH 2003, MATH 2013, MATH 2213, PHYS 2311, PHYS 2312, PHYS 2327, PHYS 2331, PHYS 2351, CS 1003 or CS 1073, plus 3 ch approved electives.

Third Year
CHEM 2002, CHEM 2201, CHEM 2222, CHEM 2421, CHEM 2422, CHEM 3621, PHYS 2372, PHYS 3336, PHYS 3331, PHYS 3351, CS 3113 or MATH 3413 or equivalent plus 3 ch approved electives.

Fourth Year
CHEM 3201, CHEM 3222, CHEM 3622, CHEM 4616, CHEM 4622, CHEM 4601 or PHYS 3752, PHYS 3322, PHYS 4332, PHYS 4351, plus 6 ch approved electives. Students in Honours add PHYS 4338 or CHEM 4000& and must have a minimum AGPA of 3.0 entering fourth year.

EARTH SCIENCES-ECONOMICS OPTION

The program totals 137 ch for Majors and 145 ch for Honours.  This includes 5 ch of field schools which take place outside of the regular fall and winter terms.

First Year
Students follow the first year Science curriculum. MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063 must be taken.  ESCI 1001ESCI 1006 or ESCI 1026ESCI 1012ESCI 1017 must be included. 2 lecture and 2 lab courses must be taken from Biology, Chemistry, or Physics.  2 additional lecture courses must be taken from Biology, Chemistry or Physics. ECON 1013, ECON 1014 or ECON 1023 ECON 1024 shouldbe taken in the first or second year.

Second Year

ESCI 2131, ESCI 2142, ESCI 2211, ESCI 2321, ESCI 2703, STAT 2263, one of MATH 2003 and MATH 2013 or MATH 1503 and MATH 2513, plus ECON 1013, ECON 1023 or ECON 1014 , ECON 1024  if not taken in the first year. ECON 3013 and ECON 3023, plus CS 1003 or CS 1073.

Third and Fourth Year
ESCI 3131, ESCI 3322, ESCI 3482, ESCI 4312, ESCI 4442ESCI 4461, ESCI 4472, ECON 3013, ECON 3023, if not taken in the second year, ECON 3665, ECON 3755, ECON 3794, ECON 4013, ECON 4023, plus a minimum of 2 term courses in Economics, and a minimum of 4 additional approved term courses.

Students in the Honours program must take ESCI 4900 in addition.

EARTH SCIENCES-PHYSICS OPTION

The program totals 148 ch for Major and 156 ch for Honours. This includes 12 ch of Earth Sciences field schools which take place outside of regular fall and winter terms. The fourth year has a lighter credit hour course load than third year to accommodate the addition of an Honours Project in fourth year. Students in a Major program may prefer to move some of the courses listed under third year into fourth year to even out the course load.

First Year
ESCI 1001, ESCI 1006 or ESCI 1026ESCI 1012, ESCI 1017, PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072, PHYS 1091 and PHYS 1092, MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063, CHEM CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017.

NOTE: Students must have already completed MATH 1013 or equivalent before entering the second year of this program.

Second Year
ESCI 2131, ESCI 2142 , ESCI 2211, ESCI 2321, ESCI 2703, PHYS 2311, PHYS 2312, PHYS 2372, MATH 2003, MATH 2013  plus 6 ch approved electives in Science or Computer Science.

Third Year
ESCI 3131, ESCI 3322, PHYS 2327, PHYS 2331, PHYS 2341, PHYS 2351, PHYS 3331, PHYS 3336, CS 3113 or MATH 3413 or equivalent plus 2 ch approved electives in Science or Computer Science.

Fourth Year
ESCI 3703,  ESCI 4501, ESCI 4512, PHYS 3322PHYS3 342, PHYS 3351, PHYS 4332, PHYS 4722 or PHYS 4823, plus 6 ch approved electives in Science or Computer Science.

Students in the Honours program add an honours project, PHYS 4338 or ESCI 4900.

MATHEMATICS/STATISTICS - ECONOMICS OPTION

The combination of mathematics, statistics and economics is a natural one as students will see practical applications of mathematics and statistics in their economics courses and the rigorous techniques from mathematics will aid students in their problem-solving skills. Requirements for a Science degree are listed below. Requirements for an Arts degree are available from either the Department of Mathematics and Statistics or the Department of Economics.

First Year
First year required courses are listed under the BSc general regulations.MATH 1013 or MATH 1063 must be included. CS 1003 or CS 1073, one of ECON 1014 and ECON 1024 or ECON 1013 and ECON 1023 may be taken in first or second year.  

Second Year
MATH 2003 , MATH 2013, MATH 2203, MATH 2213, ECON 1013, ECON 1023, CS 1003 or CS 1073 (if not taken in first year), plus approved electives to bring the course load to a minimum of 30 ch.

Third and Fourth Years

  1. MATH 3003, MATH 3043, and two courses chosen from MATH 3033, MATH 3073, MATH 3213, MATH 3243, MATH 3373, MATH 3473, MATH 3803, 3843, MATH 4423, MATH 4433 or MATH 4853 .
  2. STAT 3083, STAT 3093, STAT 4443, and three courses chosen from STAT 4083, STAT 3383, STAT 4053, STAT 4073 or STAT 3373.
  3. ECON 3013, ECON 3023, ECON 4013, ECON 4023, ECON 4625, ECON 4665, plus at least 3 additional term courses in Economics.
  4. An additional 9 ch of electives so that the total in third and fourth year is 66 ch. The minimum total number of credits for the degree is 135 ch.

Recommended electives: MATH 3413, MATH 3813, and any of the courses listed above.

Honours Requirements
MATH 3103 and MATH 3113 must be taken and MATH 3003 becomes an elective course. Honours students must take a total of 33 ch of upper level MATH/STAT courses. The minimum GPA for an honours degree from the Faculty of Science is 3.0.

NOTE: Some year-to-year variation in Economics course selection is possible. For example a student taking ECON 1014, ECON 1024 in year 1 may wish to take ECON 3013, ECON 3023 in year 2.

MATHEMATICS-PHYSICS OPTION

Both the Major and Honours versions of this option are demanding programs intended for strong students. The Honours Mathematics-Physics Program includes all the required courses of both an Honours Physics program and an Honours Mathematics program.

First Year
MATH 1003 or MATH 1053, MATH 1013 or MATH 1063, PHYS 1061 or PHYS 1071, PHYS 1062 or PHYS 1072, PHYS 1091 and PHYS 1092, CHEM 1001, 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017, plus two more term courses chosen from BIOL 1001BIOL 1012, ESCI 1001, ESCI 1012, plus 6 ch of electives.

HONOURS PROGRAM (160 ch)
Second Year
MATH 2003, MATH 2013, MATH 2203 MATH 2213, PHYS 2311, PHYS 2312, PHYS 2327, PHYS 2331, PHYS 2341, PHYS 2351, PHYS 2372, CS 1003 plus 3 ch Physics elective.

Third Year
MATH 3033, MATH 3103, MATH 3113, MATH 3243, MATH 3213, MATH 3342, MATH 3413, MATH 3073, PHYS 3322, PHYS 3336, PHYS 3351, plus 3 ch Physics elective.

Fourth Year
MATH 3043, STAT 3083, PHYS 4321, PHYS 4332, PHYS 4351, PHYS 4371, plus 3 ch Mathematics elective, plus 6 ch other electives; and finally either MATH 4100 or PHYS 4338 (6 ch or 8 ch). (In either case, the research project will be jointly supervised by a reader from each Department.)

MAJOR PROGRAM (152 ch)

Second Year
MATH 2003, MATH 2013, MATH 2213, PHYS 2311, PHYS 2312, PHYS 2327, PHYS 2331, PHYS 2341, PHYS 2351, PHYS 2372, PHYS 3342, CS 1003, plus 3 ch elective.

Third and Fourth Years
MATH 3243, MATH 3413, MATH 3503, STAT 3083, PHYS 3322, PHYS 3336, PHYS 3351, PHYS 4321, PHYS 4332, 18 ch Mathematics electives*, 15 ch Physics electives , plus 6 ch electives.
* It is recommended that students choose MATH 3003 and MATH 3213 in Yr 3. Other suggested Math electives would be MATH 2203 and MATH 3033.

GENERAL SCIENCE OPTION

This option presents students with the opportunity to get a broader science exposure by concentrating on two areas of science while taking many electives. While General Science does not give a major in any discipline, it will have to meet the minimum requirement equivalent to the minor programs in two of the selected science disciplines beyond first year. This degree has largely been used by students who planned to follow it with a second degree, e.g. in education, or a health profession.

First Year (38 ch)
The first year in General Science follows the regulations for First Year Science given in the Curriculum Section under “BACHELOR OF SCIENCE”, but students must include MATH 1003 or MATH 1053 and at least a term of lectures in each of Biology, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Physics and Economics or Psychology. Eight credit hours of coherent First year laboratory courses are chosen to meet future prerequisite requirements.

Second, Third and Fourth Years (96 ch minimum)
A student must choose two science disciplines from Biology, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Mathematics/Statistics, Physics and Economics or Psychology for areas of concentration. Courses chosen must be consistent with the requirement of the minor programs of the two selected disciplines above first year. The remainder of the 96 credit hours will be used for approved electives and courses required to meet the prerequisite for the core courses. The guidelines given below should be followed for choosing electives. Course selections must be pre-approved and reviewed annually by a General Science advisor.

Guideline for choosing electives:

  1. A minimum of 12 ch of courses must be chosen from those offered by the Faculty of Arts, 6 ch of which must have a substantial writing component as designated with a [W] in the calendar description. Courses in History of Science and ENGL 1103, ENGL 1144 are strongly recommended electives.
  2. Courses from disciplines outside of the selected concentrations that are used as prerequisites for the core courses are regarded as electives.
  3. Also acceptable as electives are additional science courses (except for those that cannot be taken for credit by Science students) and approved courses from other faculties.

DISTINCTION IN GENERAL SCIENCE
The BSc with Distinction in General Science will be awarded to students who attain a cumulative grade point average of 3.7 or greater in the General Science option.
NOTE: The General Science options on the Fredericton and Saint John campuses are different from each other. For regulations governing the General Science option offered on the Saint John campus, see the Saint John Academic Programs section of this Calendar.