Students should note that in the Science Faculty the minimum acceptable grade in a course that is required by a particular program or is used to meet a prerequisite, is a "C". Any student who fails to attain a "C" or better in such a course must repeat the course (at the next regular session) until a grade of "C" or better is attained. Students will not be eligible for graduation until such deficiencies are removed. The only exception will be granted for a single course with a "D" grade that is a normal part of the final year of that program, and is being taken for the first time in the final year.
NOTE: See the beginning of Section H for abbreviations, course numbers and coding.
Biology program description.
|BIOL1001||Biological Principles, Part I||3 ch (3C)|
Surveys principles of biology from the molecular level to the cell. Topics include an introduction to the structure, function and synthesis of biological molecules, major cellular structures and processes such as proliferation, energy capture and metabolism, and reproduction and heredity. Examples are presented from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Students intending to major in Biology must also take BIOL 1006. Credit will not be given for both BIOL 1001 and BIOL 1009.
|BIOL1006||Applications in Biology, Part I||2 ch (3L) [W]|
Instruction and laboratory work dealing with applications of Biology at the level of biological molecules and the cell.
|BIOL1009||Biological Principles, Part I - Online||3 ch (3C)|
|BIOL1012||Biological Principles, Part II||3 ch (3C)|
Evolution provides the theoretical framework within which biologists work. Through a quantitative lens, this course 1) discusses the mechanisms of evolution and speciation; 2) surveys the biological diversity that results from these processes; and 3) describes a variety of metabolic, behavioural, and ecological processes that relate to survival and reproduction. NOTE: Students intending to major in Biology must also take BIOL 1017. Credit will not be given for both BIOL 1012 and BIOL 1019.
|BIOL1017||Applications in Biology, Part II||2 ch (3L) [W]|
Instruction and laboratory work dealing with applications of Biology at the level of organisms and their ecological interactions.
|BIOL1019||Biological Principles, Part II - Online||3 ch (3C)|
This course is the online version of BIOL 1012. Students must first take BIOL 1012, or have permission of the BIOL 1012 instructor. Evolution provides the theoretical framework within which biologists work. Through a quantitative lens, this course 1) discusses the mechanisms of evolution and speculation; 2) surveys the biological diversity the results from these processes; and 3) describes a variety of metabolic, behavioural, and ecological processes that relate to survival and reproduction. NOTE: Students intending to major in Biology must also take BIOL 1017. Credit will not be given for both BIOL 1012 and BIOL 1019.
|BIOL1621||Topics in Biology I: Life on a Changing Planet||3 ch (3C)|
This course will introduce students to the biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of life on Earth through exploration of the ever-changing nature of Earth’s ecosystems. We will address topics such as major groups of plants and animals through the history of life; responses of individual organisms, populations, and species to changing environments; climate change in past, present and future; and human impacts on the biosphere. NOTE: This course is not equivalent to BIOL 1001/BIOL 1009 or BIOL 1012/BIOL 1019, and is restricted to students who have not received prior credit for BIOL 1001, BIOL 1009, BIOL 1012, or BIOL 1019.
|BIOL1622||Topics in Biology II: Life on Smaller Scales||3 ch (3C)|
This course will introduce students to biological concepts that apply to everyday life. Topics will be chosen to help students understand the molecular interactions that are essential for life, the cellular processes that are required for survival and reproduction, and the importance of these to human health, industry, and the environment. NOTE: This course is not equivalent to BIOL 1001/BIOL 1009 or BIOL 1012/BIOL 1019, and is restricted to students who have not received prior credit for BIOL 1001, BIOL 1009, BIOL 1012, or BIOL 1019.
|BIOL1711||Human Anatomy I||4 ch (3C 2L) (LE)|
This course is a general study of human anatomy which will include the following systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous (including eye and ear), cardiovascular, lymphatic, urinary, digestive, respiratory, and reproductive. Limited enrollment; priority given to students in Kinesiology, Nursing and Biology-Chemistry (Pre-Health Professions stream). Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective.
|BIOL1719||Human Anatomy I - Online||4 ch (C/L)|
This course is the online version of BIOL 1711. Kinesiology students must first take BIOL 1711. BIOL 1719 is available to students prior to enrolment in Nursing, and current Nursing and Kinesiology students with permission of the instructor. This course is also available to other students (e.g. from Science) as an elective. The course is a general study of human anatomy which will include the following systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous (including eye and ear), cardiovascular, lymphatic, urinary, digestive, respiratory, and reproductive.
|BIOL1782||Human Physiology I||4 ch (3C 2L)|
An introduction to the various systems that comprise the human body. Emphasis will be on integration of these systems for maintenance of homeostasis. Limited enrolment; priority given to Nursing and Kinesiology students. Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective.
|BIOL1789||Human Physiology I - Online||4 ch (C/L)|
This course is the online version of BIOL 1782. Kinesiology students must first take BIOL 1782. BIOL 1789 is available to students prior to enrolment in Nursing, and current Nursing and Kinesiology students with permission of the instructor. This course is also available to other students (e.g., from Science) as an elective. The course is an introduction to the various systems that comprise the human body. Emphasis will be on integration of these systems for maintenance of homeostasis.
|BIOL1846||New Brunswick Plants and Their Habitats||4 ch (C/L)|
An intensive seven day course, normally offered in the summer semester, exploring the floristic diversity of New Brunswick concentrating on the southern region. There will be an emphasis on plant identification and an introduction to botanical classification. The program for each day consists of morning lectures and lab work, afternoons in the field, and evenings with more lectures and lab work. Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective.
|BIOL2003||Introduction to Ecology||3 ch (3C)|
Ecology is the study of organisms and their interactions with the environment. We begin by introducing the physical environment as a template for evolved structures, processes, traits, and systems. The discussion then moves to adaptations of evolved systems across scales from photo/chemosynthesis to individual organisms to populations to communities to ecosystems, and emphasizing energy flow and nutrient cycling. An overall theme is the effects of human activities on ecosystem structures and functions. Students are also introduced to statistics for ecology.
|BIOL2008||Laboratory in Ecology||3 ch (1C 3L) [W]|
This course is a companion course to BIOL 2003. In this course, students use laboratory experiments to investigate core concepts in energy and nutrient acquisition by terrestrial and aquatic organisms.
Co-requisite: BIOL 2003.
|BIOL2013||Evolutionary Genetics||3 ch (3C)|
The overarching goal of this course is to provide students with an understanding of the genetic basis for evolutionary change, integrating molecular and population scales. Topics include: molecular evolution, the genetic basis for evolutionary change, population, quantitative and speciation genetics, and evolution and culture.
|BIOL2018||Laboratory in Evolutionary Genetics||3 ch (1C 3L)|
This course is a companion course to BIOL 2013. In this course, students use laboratory experiments and computer simulations and analyses to investigate core concepts in population, quantitative and speciation genetics.
Co-requisite: BIOL 2013.
|BIOL2023||Introductory Biochemistry||3 ch (3C)|
An overview of the processes required for life from biochemical, molecular, genetic and cellular perspectives. Major topics will include the structure and function of biological macromolecules, and the pathways and mechanisms of gene expression, enzymes, and cell signalling.
|BIOL2028||Laboratory in Biochemistry||3 ch (1C 3L)|
This course teaches experimental techniques used to investigate processes required for life from biochemical, molecular, genetic and cellular perspectives. Topics will include the quantitative analysis of biological macromolecules, gene expression, enzyme kinetics, and cell signaling.
Co-requisite: BIOL 2023. Pre- or co-requisite: CHEM 2401 or CHEM 2421 or permission of the instructor. Chemistry (Majors and Honours) students and Chemical Engineering students are not required to have taken BIOL 1006 and BIOL 1017.
|BIOL2053||Genetics||3 ch (3C 1T)|
Basic concepts of classical genetics including Mendelian genetics, gene interactions, sex linkage, linkage mapping and recombination, complementation are introduced. These are integrated with current topics including gene and chromosome structure and function, mutation, gene expression, transposable elements, extra nuclear genetics, quantitative and population genetics. Students doing an honours, major or minor in Biology or in an interdepartmental program with Biology cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective.
|BIOL2063||Biological Diversity||3 ch (3C)|
Biological diversity, life on planet Earth, is an interconnected continuum in time and space. All life is connected through genetic ancestry, but also through interactions in and with changing environments. The course provides students with a well-rounded understanding of biological diversity, including the concepts of and tools to study biological diversity, the innovations underlying the large biological diversity on our planet, a broad overview of biological diversity on our planet in the past and present, and importance of biological diversity to humans and the biosphere we inhabit.
Co-requisite: BIOL 2068.
|BIOL2068||Laboratory in Biological Diversity||3 ch (1C 3L)|
This course is a companion course to BIOL 2063. It provides training in generating and interpreting phylogenetic trees; provides exposure to molecular and morphological data (in extant and extinct organisms) to identify organisms and test hypotheses about their relationships; provides exposure to a variety of different organisms to explore key innovations that have led to changes in biological diversity; and teaches techniques to study organisms and biological diversity (computer software, binomial keys, microscopy, dissection, comparative observation, and sampling and collecting).
Co-requisite: BIOL 2063.
|BIOL2251||Clinical Microbiology||3 ch (3C)|
This course (i) covers aspects of the biology of microorganisms from a clinical perspective, (ii) provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of infectious disease microbiology, and (iii) discusses microbial diseases affecting the skin, nervous system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, and urinary and reproductive systems. NOTE: This course is not equivalent to BIOL 3261, and is restricted to students who have not received prior credit for BIOL 3261. As well, Biology honours majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective. Credit will not be given for both BIOL 2251 and BIOL 2259.
|BIOL2259||Clinical Microbiology - Online||3 ch (3C)|
This course is the online version of BIOL 2251. BIOL 2259 is available to current Nursing students with permission of the instructor. It (i) covers aspects of the biology of microorganisms from a clinical perspective, (ii) provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of infectious disease microbiology, and (iii) discuss microbial diseases affecting the skin, nervous system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, and urinary and reproductive systems. NOTE: This course is not equivalent to BIOL 3261, and is restricted to students who have not received prior credit for BIOL 3261. As well, Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective. Credit will not be given for both BIOL 2251 and BIOL 2259.
|BIOL2289||Work Term I||Cr|
A written report on the scientific activities of the work term in a field of Biology as part of the Co-operative Education program in Science. Credit for the course is dependent in part on the employer's evaluation of the student's work. (Students must have a GPA of 2.7 or better for BIOL Co-op placement.)
|BIOL2501||Pathophysiology I||3 ch (3C) (LE)|
Introduces students to the study of the disruption of the normal balance of selected systems of the human body by disease and other perturbations. Limited enrollment. Nursing students and BMLS students have first priority; others need permission of the instructor. Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective.
|BIOL2509||Pathophysiology I - Online||3 ch (3C)|
This course is the online version of BIOL 2501. BIOL 2509 is available to students prior to enrolment in Nursing, and current Nursing and BMLS students with permission of the instructor. This course is also available to other students (e.g., from Science) as an elective. The course introduces students to the study of the disruption of the normal balance of selected systems of the human body by disease and other perturbations.
|BIOL2513||Pathophysiology II||3 ch (3C) (LE)|
A continuation of BIOL 2501 with emphasis on perturbations to the normal functioning of organ systems. Limited enrollment. Nursing students and BMLS students have first priority; others need permission of the instructor. Biology majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective.
|BIOL2519||Pathophysiology II - Online||3 ch (3C)|
This course is the online version of BIOL 2513, and is a continuation of BIOL 2501 (or BIOL 2509) with emphasis on perturbations to the normal functioning of organ systems. BIOL 2519 is available to current Nursing and BMLS students with permission of the instructor. This course is also available to other students (e.g. from Science) as an elective.
|BIOL2721||Human Physiology II||4 ch (3C 2L) (LE)|
This course is a continuation of BIOL 1782/BIOL 1789 with emphasis on metabolism, muscle and bone physiology, immune responses and healing. Limited enrollment; Kinesiology students have first priority. Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective.
|BIOL2761||Human Physiology - Metabolism||3 ch (3C)|
This is an introductory level course in human physiology. Selected topics covered include metabolism, muscle and bone physiology, the immune system, healing and homeostasis. Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective. Credit will be given for only one of BIOL 2761, BIOL 2769, or BIOL 2721.
|BIOL2769||Human Physiology - Metabolism - Online||3 ch (3C)|
This course is the online version of BIOL 2761. Students must first take BIOL 2761, or have permission from the instructor. This is an introductory course in human physiology. Selected topics covered include metabolism, muscle and bone physiology, the immune system, healing and hometostasis. Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology credit, only as an elective. Credit will be given for only one of BIOL 2769, BIOL 2761, or BIOL 2721.
|BIOL2792||Human Physiology - Systems||3 ch (3C)|
This course will introduce students to the various systems that comprise the human body with emphasis on the integration of these systems for maintenance of homeostasis. The systems that will be covered in detail are the cardiovascular system, pulmonary system, renal system, endocrine system, gastro-intestinal system and the nervous system. Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective. Credit will be given for only one of BIOL 2792, BIOL 1782, or BIOL 1789.
|BIOL2812||Human Anatomy II||4 ch (3C 2L) (LE)|
This course is a continuation of BIOL 1711 which will study human anatomy from a regional perspective, and will expand especially upon the musculoskeletal, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. Limited enrollment; Kinesiology students have first priority. Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective.
|BIOL2819||Human Anatomy II - Online||4 ch (C/L)|
This course is the online version of BIOL 2812, and is a continuation of BIOL 1711/BIOL 1719. Students must first take BIOL 2812, or have permission from the instructor. The course studies human anatomy from a regional perspective, and will expand specifically on the musculoskeletal, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. Biology honours, majors and minors cannot count this course as a Biology credit, only as an elective. Credit will not be given for both BIOL 2819 and BIOL 2812.
|BIOL3013||Advanced Genetics||3 ch (3C)|
The goal of this course is to develop knowledge about the concepts and process of genetic analysis and its applications in research, including concepts of experimental design, methodology, and interpretation of results. Using this perspective, we explore the experimental approaches used to identify and characterize the role of genes involved in biological processes and how these approaches are applied to specific examples from the research literature.
|BIOL3031||Cell Signalling||3 ch (3C)|
Examines the principles of gene expression and cellular regulation. The perception of extra- and intracellular signals, intracellular signal transduction pathways and the control of cell function will be examined while emphasizing experimental approaches.
|BIOL3043||Cell Biology||3 ch (3C)|
An examination of the structure and function of cells, focusing on the molecules and molecular mechanisms mediating the activities of membranes, cellular compartments, protein and vesicular transport and targeting, cytoskeletal construction and dynamics, the cell cycle, regulation of cell size, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cellular differentiation and the development of multicellular organisms. The course also focuses on how the knowledge in cellular biology was obtained, on the limits to our understanding, and on current advances.
|BIOL3058||Genetic Analysis Laboratory||4 ch (2C 3L) (LE)|
An exploration of gene inheritance, mutation, regulation of gene expression, and genetic interactions. The laboratories involve the use of model eukaryotic organisms to ask questions about physiology and development at the organismal, cellular and molecular levels. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL3073||Biochemistry of Gene Expression||3 ch (3C)|
The structures and functions of all biological entities are dependent upon regulated gene expression. In this course, we will explore selected topics in gene expression from a molecular genetic and biochemical perspective. Topics may include: genome and gene structure, the processes of transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the structures and functions of RNA polymerase and the ribosome, the fine scale structures of gene promoters, and a detailed mechanistic examination of how gene expression is regulated in the cell.
|BIOL3083||Botany||5 ch (3C 3L) (LE) [W]|
During the course of their lives, plants must perform all of the same functions as animals to survive: find a suitable place to live, acquire resources, find a mate, and defend themselves from enemies. However, plants are at an apparent disadvantage in comparison to most animals because they must perform all of these activities without the benefit of mobility. Yet, it is a green world and so this handicap is more apparent than real. This course explores the great diversity of plants, and examines their form in relation to function to understand how plants manage to meet the challenges faced by all organisms. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL3102||Somatic Cytology and Histology (O)||4 ch (2C 3L) (LE)|
A study of cell structure using prepared slides. Normally offered in intersession or summer session. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL3113||Evolutionary Ecology (O)||5 ch (3C 3L)|
This lecture and lab-based course explores key ideas about ecological causes of evolutionary change. Topics will include natural and sexual selection, life histories, phenotypic plasticity, mating systems, evolutionary conflict, and co-evolution.
|BIOL3133||Selected Topics in Biochemistry (O)||3 ch (3C)|
Principles of intermediate metabolism with particular reference to physical exercise and selected biomedical topics.
|BIOL3149||Independent Studies||3 ch (R) [W]|
Allows academically strong, highly motivated students to write a report on a subject of interest. The student should discuss the topic with the staff member best qualified to give approval of the subject matter and to give guidance during the year. Application is made to the Director of Undergraduate Studies (Biology Department).
|BIOL3162||Developmental Biology of Animals||3 ch (3C)|
An exploration of animal development from fertilization to death, with emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Students will gain an understanding of how the knowledge in development biology was obtained, and of gaps in knowledge and current research.
|BIOL3173||Marine Biology Field Course (O)||4 ch (C/L/T) (LE)|
Introduces the study of the seashore and coastal waters. Emphasizes nature and ecology of littoral flora and fauna and practical methods of study. Held at the Huntsman Marine Science Centre in St. Andrews, N.B. Twelve days in length, given immediately after spring examinations. A charge for accommodation is required. Enrollment limited, selection based on CGPA.
|BIOL3207||Microbiology Laboratory||4 ch (1C 4L) [W]|
Biochemical, molecular and genetic methods are applied to the study of bacteria. Projects examine cell structure, function and physiological responses of bacteria.
|BIOL3242||Molecular Evolution||3 ch (3C)|
The course provides a synthesis of our understanding of evolution at the molecular level. It covers the dynamics of evolutionary change (i.e., rates and patterns), the driving forces behind the evolutionary process, the effects of various molecular mechanisms and processes on the structure and evolution of genes and genomes.
|BIOL3261||Microbiology||3 ch (3C)|
Principles of prokaryotic, cell biology, including cell structures and their function, metabolism and growth, and regulation of cellular processes. Topics include the response of bacteria to environmental factors, bacterial-host interactions, and molecular and genomic tools to study microbiology.
|BIOL3279||Work Term II||Cr|
A written report on the scientific activities of the work term in a field of Biology as part of the Co-operative Education program in Science. Credit for the course is dependent in part on the employer's evaluation of the student's work.(Students must have a GPA of 2.7 or better for BIOL Co-op placement.)
Prerequisite: Work term I in a field of Science .
|BIOL3289||Work Term III||Cr|
A written report on the scientific activities of the work term in a field of Biology as part of the Co-operative Education Program in Science. Credit for the course is dependent in part on the employer’s evaluation of the student’s work. (Students must have a GPA 2.7 or better for BIOL Co-op placement.)
Prerequisite: Work Term II in a field of Science.
|BIOL3293||Population Genetics||4 ch (3C 2L)|
An introduction to the branch of evolutionary biology concerned with the genetic structure of populations and how it changes through space and time. Topics will include the main evolutionary forces and their effects on patterns of phenotypic and molecular variation within and among populations, molecular markers and their applications in evolutionary and conservation biology, and an introduction to unifying concepts such as the genetics of speciation, molecular evolution, and population genomics. Laboratory sessions will emphasize the use of different computer packages for the analysis and interpretation of the data encountered in population genetics.
|BIOL3301||Taxonomy of the Flowering Plants (O)||5 ch (3C 3L)|
Why is it that the flowering plants are the most recently evolved of all the major plant groups yet they are by far the most diverse and abundant? The diversity of flowering plants and their identification, description and classification will be emphasized in relation to the flora of New Brunswick and major flowering plant families of the world.
|BIOL3311||Immunobiology||3 ch (3C)|
Production and function of the immunoglobulins, characteristics of immunogens, prevention of infectious disease, hypersensitivity and allergy, transplantation and autoimmune diseases.
|BIOL3383||Research Foundations in Field Ecology (O)||4 ch (C/L/T) (LE)|
Introduces field biology with emphasis on the organism, population and ecosystem levels of complexity. Based on direct observation, field techniques and analysis. Held just prior to the beginning of the academic year - 6 days in length. Further work must be completed during the Fall term. Enrollment is limited, based on CGPA. The location of this course may vary. Depending upon the location, accommodation will be required. Please refer to notices posted in the Biology Department.
|BIOL3423||Forest Tree Genetics and Genomics (A)||3 ch (3C)|
Principles of variation and inheritance in forest trees will be introduced. Then, various genetics, genomics, biotechnology and breeding concepts and principles and their applications in tree biology, tree improvement, silviculture, conservation of genetic resources and sustainable forest management, will be discussed. The topics will include: basic principles of quantitative, molecular, population and conservation genetics; genetic variation, differentiation and evolution of populations; reproductive biology; ecophysiological genetics of adaptation; tree improvement concepts, methods and programs; silvicultural practices and genetic resource conservation; discovery and functional analysis of genes; organization and mapping of genomes; marker-assisted selection and molecular breeding; and genetic engineering of forest trees. This course is cross-listed as FOR 3425 ; students cannot receive credit for both BIOL 3423 and FOR 3425 .
Prerequisite: BIOL 2013 or permission of the instructor.
|BIOL3441||Ecology of Populations and Communities||4 ch (3C 3L)|
To understand and link processes acting on individuals, populations and communities in space and time. To predict the response of individuals, populations and communities to disturbance, and to understand the implications of such responses for management of populations, communities and ecosystems. This course is cross-listed as FOR 3445; students cannot receive credit for both BIOL 3441 and FOR 3445 .
|BIOL3459||Economic Botany (O)||3 ch (3C)|
Discusses concepts and principles that can be derived from the biological, sociological and economic impact of the use of plants for food, shelter, landscaping and general well-being. Considers the different methods and reasons why various plants are cultivated and/or utilized by humans.
|BIOL3493||Introduction to Virology||3 ch (3C)|
This course covers the fundamental features of virology including the structure and classification of viruses. We will examine the processes of viral attachment, replication, expression and assembly, and discuss various virus-host interactions including transmission, latency, evolution and disease. Modern advances in virology will also be addressed such as antivirals, vaccines, prion diseases and viral ecology.
|BIOL3541||Plant Ecology (O)||5 ch (3C 3L)|
A course on the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of plants, how pattern and structure at the level of populations and communities can be described quantitatively, and how these arise from the interaction of abiotic (climate, fire, soil) and biotic (competition, herbivory) factors.
|BIOL3593||Introductory Histology||4 ch (2C 3L)|
Histology, or micro-anatomy, is the study of cells, tissues, and organs using microscopic techniques. The aim of this course is to integrate both the form and function of animal tissues (with a focus on human tissues), and examine why tissues and cells are arranged the way they are. At the end of the course, students should be able to identify and describe histological images and understand how the cellular arrangement of organs enables them to perform specialized functions. This course is intended for upper level undergraduates having at least some knowledge of cell biology, and will be of particular interest to students wanting a career in biomedical sciences and health professions.
Prerequisite: BIOL 2023.
|BIOL3603||Invertebrate Zoology||5 ch (3C 3L)|
A study of the invertebrate phyla, emphasizing evolutionary origins, adaptive morphology and physiology, while covering anatomical ground plans and basic developmental patterns. Laboratory exercises include numerous dissections, and students doing an anatomical atlas of an invertebrate animal of their choice.
|BIOL3633||Biological Oceanography||3 ch (3C)|
This course considers how oceans, which cover more than 70% of the earth's surface, act as a dominant environmental force. It examines the processes regulating the abundance, diversity, distribution and production of microbes, phytoplankton, zooplankton and high trophic levels. By exploring the influence of physical factors (i.e. tides, waves, upwelling, light), we will see how temporal and spatial scales are critical for understanding the living ocean.
Prerequisites: BIOL 2003; and CHEM 1001, CHEM 1006, CHEM 1012, CHEM 1017. Recommended: BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068. NOTE: Students planning to take the Marine Block Semester should take BIOL 3633 in advance.
|BIOL3673||General Parasitology||3 ch (3C)|
The biology of parasites of humans, animals of veterinary significance, and wildlife species. This course serves to integrate parasite life history, epidemiology, molecular interactions at the host-parasite interface, mechanisms of infection, host immune responses, parasite immune evasion mechanisms, pathology, diagnostics, control strategies, and therapeutics.
|BIOL3703||Vertebrate Zoology||5 ch (3C 3L) (LE)|
Stresses interrelationships between structure and function particularly as responses to a variable environment. Considers phylogeny and taxonomy of major groups. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL3801||Animal Physiology||3 ch (3C)|
This course examines, at a fundamental level, the ways by which animals function, with an emphasis on physiological adaptations to the environment. Topics covered include respiration and circulation, metabolism and bioenergetics, thermal adaptation, ionic and osmotic regulation, and integrative neuromuscular, endocrine and sensory physiology.
|BIOL3812||Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinology||3 ch (3C)|
This course uses a comparative approach to examine hormonal regulation of ingestion, digestion, metabolism, reproduction and maintenance of homeostasis in vertebrates.
Prerequisite: BIOL 2023.
|BIOL3833||Forensic Biology||3 ch (3C)|
Prerequisites: Any two of the following: (BIOL 1711 or BIOL 1719), (BIOL 1782 or BIOL 1789 or BIOL 2792), BIOL 2003, BIOL 2023, BIOL 2063, (BIOL 2721 or BIOL 2761 or BIOL 2769), ANTH 2504, ANTH 2505, ANTH 3523, or permission of the instructor.
|BIOL3873||Ethology||3 ch (3C)|
Considers physiological foundations of behaviour and deals with topics of motivation, displacement behaviour, hormones, evolution and learning.
Prerequisite: BIOL 2013.
|BIOL3883||Entomology||5 ch (3C 3L)|
Ecology, evolution, taxonomy, and diversity of insects, both terrestrial and aquatic. This course studies the most diverse group of animals on Earth: the Insecta. Topics include insect body plans, growth, and development; major evolutionary groups of insects; ecological and economic importance of insects; insect collection and identification. Students will make and curate insect collections (this will be accomplished most easily by students who begin the summer before taking the course; interested students should contact the instructor for more information).
|BIOL3908||Laboratory Studies in Vertebrate Physiology||3C (3C/L) (LE) [W]|
A study of selected physiological concepts via laboratory experimentation, with emphasis on presentation and interpretation of data in relation to the literature. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL3933||Practical Computing in Biology||4 ch (2C 3L) (LE)|
Recent advances in technology allow biologists to generate huge amounts of data in different fields such as genetics, ecology, and neuroscience. For many problems, manual data analysis is no longer possible, and biology is becoming increasingly quantitative and computationally intensive. In this course, you will learn how to approach biological problems using a basic toolkit including text processing, shell scripting, programming, data management, and data display. Previous programming experience is not required.
|BIOL3943||Hypothesis Testing in Biology||3 ch (C/L/S)|
This course provides an introduction to methods that Biologists use to address, develop and test hypotheses in biology. We will ask: How do students, researchers, and professionals in biology set up questions for their research and/or assess evidence? How do they design their experiments? What traps and pitfalls do they know to look out for? How do we know if a scientific study is flawed? This course focuses more on ideas about why we do statistics and how to interpret them, rather than the mathematical details of different tests. Examples will range from cell biology to community ecology. Students will be exposed to a range of computer software necessary to explore, interpret and understand data and test hypotheses. This course will be important for students taking upper-year lab or field courses and Honours by thesis.
Prerequisite: STAT 2264 or equivalent.
|BIOL4043||Cellular Metabolism||3 ch (3C/S)|
Life is a chemical phenomenon. Its maintenance requires the input of energy, acquisition of electrons and essential elements from the environment, and metabolic schemes to synthesize the biological molecules required for cellular viability and replication. This course examines the unifying biochemical concepts underlying diverse metabolic strategies utilized by prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
|BIOL4090||Honours Thesis Project||9 ch [W]|
Honours students in Biology or in an interdepartmental program with Biology (e.g., Biology-Chemistry) who wish to undertake a thesis project in Biology are encouraged to make their wishes known to individual members of faculty. If a potential supervisor is found, the student will obtain an instruction sheet from the Undergraduate Biology office and make application to the Chair of Biology for admission into BIOL 4090 before preregistration at the end of the third year. This course involves preparation, design and execution of a research project under the direct supervision of a member of the Department as well as the preparation of a formal thesis and defense of the thesis in a seminar presentation. Note: Minimum CGPA for acceptance is 3.0. A student cannot receive credit for both BIOL 4090 and BIOL 4149.
|BIOL4123||Evolutionary Medicine||3 ch (3C)|
“Nothing makes sense except in the light of evolution” (Dobzhansky, 1964). Evolutionary (or Darwinian) Medicine is a relatively new field at the intersection of evolution and medicine that uses evolutionary theory and approaches to (i) address questions related to the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underlie health and disease, (ii) understand why we are susceptible to disease, and (iii) explore ways to prevent and treat disease. This course provides (i) an overview of evolutionary theory and principles as they apply to the evolution of multicellularity, development and defense mechanisms, and (ii) a framework to appreciate the role of evolution in health and disease (including cancer, aging, and infectious diseases).
|BIOL4149||Senior Research Project||5 ch [W]|
Gives academically strong and highly motivated students in Year IV an opportunity to do a literature or research project on a subject of interest. The student should discuss the topic with the staff member best qualified to give approval of the subject matter and to give guidance during the year. Application is made to the Biology Director of Undergraduate Studies. A student cannot receive credit for both BIOL 4090 and BIOL 4149.
|BIOL4182||Experimental Embryology||4 ch (2C 3L) (LE)|
This course provides students with opportunities to directly observe and independently investigate aspects of embryonic development, primarily using zebrafish embryos. The development of other species is discussed, and occasionally investigated in the lab, to provide evolutionary and theoretical context. The embryonic origins of specific organ systems and structures, developmental mechanisms underlying the processes of pattern formation, and the molecular basis of some major tissue remodeling events are studied. As well, students gain experience with advanced microscopic techniques. The course culminates with a substantive independent research project. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL4191||Wildlife Management||3 ch (3C)|
Studies biological, economic, and human factors affecting wildlife populations.
Prerequisite: BIOL 2003 or permission of the instructor
|BIOL4211||Marine Research Experience||2 ch (3 L) (LE)|
|BIOL4221||Diversity, Evolution and Ecology of Marine Plants||5 ch (C/L/S) (LE)|
This course will survey the diversity of marine plants (seaweed and phytoplankton) relative to one another and the other key lineages of life; exploring their diverse anatomical, cytological, life history and ecological attributes. In the laboratory students will use microscopy to explore vegetative and reproductive features of the various marine plants in our area. A significant component of the laboratory portion of the course will derive from work in the field collecting specimens for personal herbaria and completing biodiversity assessments (a cost may be associated with this trip).
Prerequisites: BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068, or permission of the instructor. Limited enrollment. Normally taken in the same term as BIOL 4211, BIOL 4641, BIOL 4691 or BIOL 4851 or BIOL 4981, BIOL 4991 as part of the Marine Biology Concentration.
|BIOL4233||Conservation Biology||3 ch (3C)|
An overview of the theory and practice of maintaining biological diversity at genetic, species, and ecosystem levels. The course focuses on scientific principles and technical tools in conservation biology.
Pre- or co-requisite: BIOL 2003 or permission of the instructor.
|BIOL4272||Communication in the Biochemical Sciences||3 ch (4S) (LE) [W]|
A project-oriented course for students in their last year of study in the Biology-Chemistry program. Students will select, investigate, discuss and communicate (written and oral) the important principles of their topic to different target audiences. The topic will have biochemical focus, but students are expected to explore the political, social, economic, and ethical aspects consider the impact on society as a whole. Limited enrollment; students in Biology may enroll with the permission of the instructor and availability of space.
|BIOL4289||Work Term IV||Cr|
A written report on the scientific activities of the work term in a field of Biology as part of the Co-operative Education Program in Science. Credit for the course is dependent in part on the employer’s evaluation of the student’s work. (Students must have a GPA of 2.7 or better for BIOL Co-op placement.)
Prerequisite: Work term III in a field of Science.
|BIOL4302||Microbial Biotechnology||3 ch (C/S)|
For thousands of years, even long before they were known to exist, microorganisms have been employed by humans to produce and preserve food and to protect human health. Today, knowledge of the biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology of microorganisms has accelerated the development of new and improved biological products and processes. In this course we will examine the production and application of microbial biotechnology products that can solve problems in agriculture, medicine, industry, and the environment. This will include an exploration of the economic, social, and safety concerns associated with the commercialization of these products.
|BIOL4351||Climate Change and Environmental Response||3 ch (3C)|
Examines theories and patterns of climate change since the last Ice Age. A variety of paleoecological techniques applied to a number of fossil organisms will be discussed in relation to the information they yield about past environments.
Prerequisites: Introductory course in anthropology, biology, or geology. May only be taken by students who have completed two years of their program.
|BIOL4368||Techniques in Paleoecology and Climate Change||3 ch (3L)|
The principal aim of this course is to provide students with a hands-on experience in how to study past climates and environments from the historical record preserved in lake sediments. Students will learn the common coring techniques, how to recognize different sediment types, how to reconstruct past plant communities, and how to estimate quantitatively past temperatures.
Pre- or co-requisite: BIOL 4351.
|BIOL4423||Conservation Genetics (A)||3 ch (3C)|
This class will examine the application of genetic principles, concepts and biotechnologies in conservation, sustainable management and restoration of natural and managed resources. The topics will include: concepts of genetic resources, genetic biodiversity and other population genetic parameters, demography, conservation, sustainable management, ecological restoration, and minimum viable population size; indicators for population viability; exploration, evaluation, utilization, and conservation of genetic resources; genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation, resource management practices, domestication, climate change, and natural disturbance; and challenges, opportunities and strategies for conservation and sustainable management of genetic resources. This course is cross-listed as FOR 4425; students cannot receive credit for both BIOL 4423 and FOR 4425.
|BIOL4443||International Ecology Field Course (A)||4 ch (C/L/T) (LE)|
This course allows students an on-site exposure and understanding of ecological interactions of soil, climate, plants and animals in a region outside of the Maritimes. A 10-14 day field trip to the region is required. Weekly seminars will be held in the period before the field trip. Students will be charged for travel and costs associated with the course. Limited enrollment. Open to biology and forestry students, with permission of the instructor.
|BIOL4463||Scientific Writing||3 ch (3C/S) (LE)[W]|
A workshop and project-oriented course in scientific writing. The primary focus is on writing the journal paper. Enrolling students must have a research project (Honours thesis or other) advanced enough to be written up as part of the course activity, and must be able to share drafts with classmates. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL4533||Bioinformatics: Computational Analysis of Genes and Genomes||4 ch (2C 4L) (LE)|
Explores computational methods used in sequence analysis of genomes, genes, RNAs, and proteins. Topics include sequence alignment, genome database searching, gene prediction, RNA and protein structure, DNA and protein sequence comparison, and phylogenetic analysis. These topics will be integrated into the context of research in genetics and molecular biology. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL4563||Mathematical Biology (A)||3 ch (3C)|
Overview of the field of mathematical biology. Development, simulation and analysis of simple mathematical models describing biological systems. Equal emphasis is placed on developing simple models and case studies of successful models. The principal mathematical tools are differential and difference equations, finite mathematics, probability and statistics. This course is intended for students in their third or fourth year having an interest in biological research.
Prerequisites: A course in statistics, MATH 2003, BIOL 2013 or equivalent, or permission of the instructor. This course is cross-listed as MATH 4563. Credit may not be obtained for both MATH 4563 and BIOL 4563 .
|BIOL4581||Eukaryotic Microbiology||5 ch (3C 2L)|
Protists (microbial eukaryotes and related groups) constitute the vast majority of the known eukaryote diversity. This course examines the origin, evolution and diversification of the major protist groups. Lecture topics include recent classification and taxonomic schemes, ecology of important lineages, and relevance to humans. Practical components of the course include the use of microscopy for identification and documentation, sampling techniques, establishment of cell cultures, high-throughput DNA sequencing and genome-scale analyses. At the end of the course the students will have a broad and integrative view of the microbial eukaryote diversity.
|BIOL4641||Coastal Marine Ecology||5 ch (C/L/S) (LE)|
This course examines the ecology of shorelines, with a focus on the Atlantic coast. Topics include the setting (continental drift, sea level, species origins, water movement), primary and secondary production, reproduction and recruitment, patterns (zonation) and processes (competition, mutualism, predation, disturbance), and main habitats (rocky shores, mudflats, salt marshes) There may be an additional charge for one-day field trips. Limited enrollment.
Prerequisites: BIOL 2003, BIOL 2008, BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068. Normally taken in the same term as BIOL 4211, BIOL 4221, BIOL 4691 or BIOL 4851 or BIOL 4981, BIOL 4991 as part of the Marine Biology Concentration.
|BIOL4688||Applied Studies in Parasitology (O)||4 ch (C/L/S) (LE) [W]|
Designed as a follow-up to a general lecture-based course in Parasitology, and to be offered during intersession or summer session. This course emphasizes the hands-on study of animal parasites and will incorporate both field investigations and laboratory work. Students will receive training in postmortem examination, microscopy, histology, diagnostics (morphological, molecular, and immunological), experimental design, scientific writing and data presentation. There may be an additional charge for field trips (e.g. to aquaculture sites, domestic livestock farms). Limited enrollment.
Prerequisite: BIOL 3673 or permission of the instructor.
|BIOL4691||Biology of Marine Parasites||5 ch (C/L/S) (LE)[W]|
Nearly every life form is host to a parasite. This course emphasizes the hands-on study of parasites of invertebrate animals and marine fishes and incorporates field investigations and laboratory work. This course serves to integrate parasite diversity and life history, aspects of the ecology of parasitism, mechanisms of infection, epidemiology, host responses to infection, and pathology. Students will receive training in post-mortem examination, microscopy, parasite identification and diagnosis (morphological and molecular). Experience with experimental design, scientific writing, and data presentation will be acquired in association with independent student research projects. There may be an additional charge for field trips. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL4723||Ornithology||5 ch (3C 3L) [W]|
Studies birds; natural selection, morphological adaptations, migration, behaviour, and reproduction, in an ecological way.
|BIOL4732||Mammology||5 ch (3C 3L)|
Studies mammals, covering taxonomy, adaptations, reproduction, populations, physiology, behaviour and ecology.
|BIOL4741||Fish Biology||3 ch (3C)|
A comprehensive study of fishes from the Agnatha to specialized teleosts. Topics covered include phylogeny, ecology, reproduction, behaviour, physiology, functional morphology, and conservation biology.
|BIOL4746||Laboratory Studies in Fish Biology (A)||2 ch (3L) (LE)|
This course examines practical aspects of ichthyology covered in BIOL 4741. Field trips to freshwater sites focus on assessing population size, habitat preference, and species diversity. Laboratory exercises will include dissections, fish husbandry techniques, fish ageing, and techniques to assess fish behaviour and physiological status. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL4773||River and Lake Ecosystems (A)||3 ch (3C)|
Provides a foundation of understanding of ecosystem processes in streams, lakes, and wetlands. Physical and biological components of such systems will be presented, and concepts and theories defining freshwater ecology will be discussed.
Prerequisite: BIOL 2003.
|BIOL4823||Life in Extreme Environments (A)||3 ch (3C)|
This course will examine the morphology, physiology and (where applicable) behaviour of organisms that thrive in environments that most living organisms could not survive. Collectivley referred to as "extremophiles", these organisms will be studied in relation to (1) the type of extreme environment they exist in, (2) why the particular conditions are so difficult for other life forms, and (3) how the particular extremophiles has evolved and/or adapted to allow it to exist under the conditions described.
|BIOL4851||Ecology of Marine Birds (A)||5 ch (C/L/S) (LE)|
This course treats seabirds as important components of marine food-webs. Fundamental adaptations (structure, function, physiology, life-history) of seabirds will be linked to the ecological processes driving them. The influence of major oceanographic patterns (bathymetry, currents, upwellings) on seabird distribution and numbers will be explored. Through exploration of the role of seabirds as predators of other marine biota, and in nutrient transfer between marine and terrestrial systems, students will gain a thorough understanding of the roles played by seabirds in marine and coastal systems. Course includes an overnight field trip to Grand Manan Island, for which there may be an extra cost. Examples will be drawn from current seabird research especially in Atlantic Canada. Limited enrollment.
Prerequisites: BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068, or permission of the instructor. Recommended: BIOL 3633. Offered in alternate years; normally taken in the same term as BIOL 4211, BIOL 4221, BIOL 4641, BIOL 4991 as part of the Marine Biology Concentration.
|BIOL4863||Environmental Biology||4 ch (5C/L/S) (LE) [W]|
Examines the effects of human activity upon the environment, both locally and globally. There may be an additional charge for field trips. Limited enrollment.
Pre- or co-requisite: BIOL 2003 or equivalent.
|BIOL4953||Forensic Biology Seminar||3 ch (3S) (LE)|
This course will take an in-depth look at peer-reviewed journal articles published in a wide variety of sub-disciplines under the broader topic of forensic biology. The aim of this course is to look at the exsisting literature in relevant areas of research with an eye to critiquing methodology, analysis, and conclusions of a variety of experiments that have potential implications in forensic science.
Prerequisite: BIOL 3833..
|BIOL4981||Biology of Freshwater and Marine Fishes (A)||5 ch (C/L/S) (LE)|
An intensive course that combines lecture material on select taxonomic, organismal and process-oriented aspects of fish biology with laboratory and field investigations of applied fisheries science. Field trips to freshwater and marine sites will focus on sampling methods, assessing population size, species diversity, ecology and environmental impacts. Laboratory exercises will include ageing, fish taxonomy, development and comparative functional morphology. Work will incorporate both group study and individual projects with an emphasis on scientific analysis and interpretation of data, including a formal seminar presentation. There may be an additional charge for field trips. Limited enrollment.
|BIOL4991||Aquaculture in Canada||5 ch (C/L/S) (LE)|
Aquaculture is the aquatic equivalent to terrestrial agriculture. We are in the midst of a global transition from hunting and gathering wild aquatic organisms to farming them. This course examines the biological principles and constraints of commercial and pilot-scale aquaculture in Canada, with emphasis on the Atlantic region. Although the focus of the course is on fish culture, consideration is also given to bivalve and seaweed culture. Topics covered include controlled reproduction, genetics and biotechnology, nutrition and feeding, stress and disease, and sustainability. Includes an overnight field trip to the Bay of Fundy to visit commercial and research facilities (a cost may be associated with this trip). Limited enrollment.
Prerequisites: BIOL 2063, BIOL 2068, or permission of the instructor. Normally taken in the same term as BIOL 4211, BIOL 4221, BIOL 4641, BIOL 4691 or BIOL 4851 or BIOL 4981 as part of the Marine Biology Concentration.
|BIOL5473||Experimental Design and Data Analysis in Biology and Forestry||3 ch (3C, 1T)|
Introduces students who have previously taken a formal class in statistics to the practice and pitfalls of experimental design and data analysis in biology and forestry. It is intended for both graduate students and final year undergraduates (enrolled in an honours or senior research project). It will be jointly taught by faculty members from the Departments of Mathematics/Statistics, Biology and/or Forestry. Topics will be selected from sampling designs, experimental designs, parametric and non-parametric analysis, power analysis, and regression. The course will include discussion of examples in the literature. Students will also be analysing and interpreting data sets arising from their field of research.
Prerequisite: STAT 2264 or equivalent.
|BIOL6000||Series courses: (Graduate courses offered by the Department of Biology)|
Graduate courses are open to undergraduates who can show that a course is of special value to them in their area of specialization. For details of courses offered consult the Calendar of the School of Graduate Studies and Research.